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V. 



NO^ 



^> 



1 



HISTORY 



OF 



THE ZULU WAR. 




SieREOSCOPIC Co 




Copyright. 



(Facsimile of his Signature on the last Dra/ft drawn hy him 
through tlis Standard BanJc on Messrs. Rothschild S; Co.) 



PT 



HISTORY 



OF 



THE ZULU WAK. 



BY 



A. WILMOT, F.E.G.S. 



LONDON: 
EICHAEDSON AND BEST, PATEENOSTEE EOW; 

AND 

A. WHITE AND CO., 
"SOUTH AEEICAN MAIL" OFFICE, 17, BLOMFIELD STREET. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE: 

TO BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLEES THROUGHOUT THE COLONY.'' 

1880. 



Sc; 29 



LlBRAmt^ 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, 

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 



PEEFATORY NOTE. 



-♦o^ 



The salient features and the principal events of the Zulu 
war are referred to in this volume. Long and uninterest- 
ing details respecting minor operations are omitted, and an 
attempt is made to furnish a readable book, which gives 
a fair view of the causes, origin, and progress of the war. 
It must be borne in mind that South African Kafir wars 
constitute one tragedy in various acts. The Zulu campaigns 
are merely last links of a chain. The war with Cetywayo 
is identical in principle with those waged with Gaika, 
T'Slambie, Dingaan, Kreli, and Sandilli. The tide of 
savagery has been periodically rolled back, and it was either 
necessary that this should be done, or that white men 
should abandon Southern Africa. The fatuous policy of 
Lord Glenelg caused the wars of 1846 and 1852, and there 
is in essence no difference between it and the policy 
advocated by the opponents of Sir Bartle Frere. In order 
not to load this introductory note with lengthy observations, 
a paper will be found in the Appendix treating upon this 
subject.* 

* Cape Colonists versus Natives ; also despatcli of Sir Bartle Frere, dated 
12th February, 1879. 



VI PREFATORY NOTE. 

Blue Books and correspondents' letters necessarily form 
the principal authorities. The preliminary portion of the 
book has been really requisite, and it is hoped that it will 
be found not the least interesting portion of the volume. 
No doubt, in the first connected narrative of the Zulu war, 
many omissions and inaccuracies may be discovered, but 
every effort has been made to collect the truth from the 
most reliable authorities, and to tell it without fear, favour, 
or prejudice. 

Port Elizabeth, 

25t7i Se:ptembeT,lS1^. 



CONTENTS. 



-•o^ 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Early History of the Zulu Nation and of Natal ... 1 



CHAPTER II. 
Native Policy in Natal — Laws, Customs, and Religion of the 

CHAPTER III. 

Events preliminary to Zulu War — Commencement of Hostili- 

CHAPTER IV. 

Lord Chelmsford's Plans — The Battle of Isandhlwana — The 
Heroic Defence of Rorke's Drift — Panic in the Colony — 
Request for Reinforcements — Reply from the Queen — The 
Ministry — Sir Bartle Frere — Lord Chelmsford ... 50 

CHAPTER V. 

Pearson's Column — March to Ekowe — Battle of Inyezane — 
Ekowe — Zulu Army — Wood's Column — Reinforcements 
from England — The Colonists — The Navy ... ... 71 

CHAPTER YI. 

The Zlobane Mountain — Piet Uys — The Battle of Kambula 
— The Intombe Disaster — Battle of Ghinghelovo — Relief 
OF Ekowe ... ... ... ... ... ... 91 



Viu CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VII. 



PA.OS 



The Services of Native Contingents — Lord Chelmsford and 
Sir H. Bulwer — Review of the Campaign — Difficulties 
OF Transport — Immense Delay — Burying the Dead at 
Isandhlwana ... ... ... ... ... ... 112 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Sir Bartle Frere's Policy — Censure of the Home Govern- 
ment — Slow Operations — Affair of the 5th of June — 
The Prince Imperial — His Arrival — Services — Character 
— Death — Court-Martial — Funeral Rites and Embarka- 
tion OF the Body of the Prince Imperial ... ... 140 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Policy of Sir Bartle Frere — Slow Advance of the 
British Columns — Appointment and Arrival of Sir Garnet 
Wolseley — Battle of Ulundi — Resignation and Depab- 
ture of Lord Chelmsford ... ... ... ... 170 

CHAPTER X. 

Lord Chelmsford's Policy — Promptness and Decision op Sir 
Garnet Wolseley — The Hunt and Capture of Cetywayo 
— Departure from Natal — The Last of the Zulu Kings 
A Prisoner in the Castle of Cape Town — Great Meet- 
ing with Zulu Chiefs — Sir G. Wolseley's Speech — 
Settlement of the Country — End of the War ... 203 

Appendix ... ... ... ... ... ... 231 



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MAP OF 

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SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES. 



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HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 



-•o* 

• 



CHAPTEK I. 

EARLY HISTORY OF THE ZULU NATION AND OF NATAL. 

Two different races met in Southern Africa about the 
middle of the seventeenth century. One had migrated 
from the centre of the continent ; the other sent out settlers 
from one of the most civilized and prosperous countries 
of Europe. These races were the Kafirs and the Dutch. 
The former arrived at the banks of the Great Fish Eiver 
about the same time that Surgeon Van Eiebeek landed on 
the shores of Table Bay for the purpose of establishing " a 
place of refreshment for the outward and homeward bound 
lieets of the chartered Dutch East India Company." 
The progress of the new colony was so gradual and slow 
that it was not until the nineteenth century that Kafir 
irruptions were effectually checked, and then the British 
Government had assumed sovereignty over the Cape of 
Good Hope. Different causes, to which it is not necessary 
to refer, made the descendants of the Dutch settlers so 

B 



2 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAB. 

dissatisfied with our rule that a portion of them, in the 
year 1837, passed into that easterly portion of Southern 
Africa styled Natal. There they came in contact with the 
bravest and best-organized portion of the great Kafir race. 
The Ama-Zulus were originally a small and despised 
tribe. They were '' tobacco sellers," or pedlars, and carried 
on this occupation at the beginning of the present century 
in the country between the Black and White Umvolosi 
rivers. In contradistinction to the nature of their em- 
ployment, and as an emblem of the ambition of the people, 
the name they gave themselves was one of the proudest 
they could have chosen, as " the Zulus " in the Kafir 
tongue signifies ''the Celestials." At an early period in 
this century a great leader arose among them, who became 
the Genghis Khan of Southern Africa. This chief was 
fitly named ''Utskaka" — "Chaka,"or ''Break of Day;" and 
it was in consequence of his efforts and of his success that 
a new era commenced for his countrymen. 

Chaka was never defeated, and never fled before a foe. 
Having ascended the throne by means of the murder of 
his uncle, he proceeded at once to convert a nation of 
pedlars into a nation of warriors. Immense care was 
taken with military training, and the w^eapon by means 
of which the Eoman soldiers conquered the world was 
adopted for the use of the army. The short sword, or 
stabbing assegai, was supplied, with the command that 
^ach vfarrior should carry but one, and either bring it 
back from the battle-field or be put to death as a coward. 
Marriage was forbidden, although the gratification of 



CHAKA AND HIS ARMY. 3 

brutal lust was allowed. No warrior could have a wife 
or child to imbue him with any tender sentiment. The 
practice of circumcision, although one of the most ancient 
and important rites, was abandoned, so that everything, 
lio matter how sacred or how important, was sacrificed 
in order to create invincible legions. The army consisted 
of three divisions. The first was composed of veterans, 
styled ''amadoda," or men; the second gf youths, "ebuto;" 
and the third of " ezibuto," or carriers. It was in the last 
division that conquered enemies were frequently enrolled. 
The king was the commander-in-chief, and under him were 
the principal indunas, or ministers of state. Each regi- 
ment was at least 1500 strong, and was led by a captain, 
who had under him numerous subalterns. Military kraals 
were scattered over the country, generally of an oval shape, 
and of large dimensions. Eeviews took place at the great 
place of the king, where songs, dances, and chivalrous 
games were all made use of to increase the military 
enthusiasm of the warriors. When war was determined 
upon, extreme secrecy was observed, spies were sent out, 
and the usual incantations and sacrifices performed by the 
priest or witch-doctor. A herald, dressed in the skins of 
wild beasts, so as to present a terrific appearance, then 
was sent to the army, and cried with a loud voice, " Maiku- 
puke ! " — ''Go up ! " An inspiring oration was delivered by 
the king, and they went forth to conquer or to die, fifty 
thousand well- organized, determined savages, giving no 
quarter, slaying men, women, children, and even domestic 
animals. Thus has a warrior described the onset of one of 



4 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

these savage armies : — '' The Matabele lions raised the 
shout of death, and fell upon their victims. It was the 
shout of victory. Their hissing and hollow groans told 
their progress among the dead. A few moments laid 
hundreds on the ground. The clash of shields was the 
signal of triumph. They entered the town with the roar 
of the lion; they pillaged and fired the houses, speared 
the mothers, and cast their infants to the flames. Thev 
slaughtered cattle ; they danced and sang till the dawn of 
day ; they ascended and killed till their hands were weary 
of the spear." 

Chaka not only led his army in person, but was accus- 
tomed himself to seize the first victim, and to kill him with 
Ms spear. After subduing the petty tribes around, he bore 
his victorious arms further, and carried fire and sword 
along the slopes of the Drakenberg Mountains. One of his 
greatest conquests was over the Undwandwa people, and 
this was followed by the destruction of the Umtetwas. An 
attack was then made upon the brave Amaquabi, who 
•occupied both sides of the Tugela river, which forms the 
present boundary of Natal. Merciless slaughters followed 
Tictory, and the tide of conquest only ceased on the banks 
of the Umsimvoboo. 

In the year 1828, Lieutenant Farewell, Mr. H. Fynn, 
and a few others, were permitted to visit Cha.ka, who then 
resided at a distance of about 150 miles in a north-north- 
east direction from D'Urban, Port Natal. The Englishmen 
were received by the mighty Zulu potentate with great cere- 
mony. Nine thousand armed warriors stood around, and 



ASSASSINATION OF CEAKA. 5 

the despotic character of the monarch was reflected in the 
servile submission with which he was treated by his sub- 
jects. Chaka munificently granted a large tract of country 
to Mr. H. Fynn, and subsequently conferred a similar 
favour upon Lieutenant King. These grants — and all 
grants of this nature — were, strictly speaking, mere feudal 
investitures, paramount rights being retained by the 
monarch. The first European settlement in Natal was 
thus formed. An act of treason on the part of one of 
Chaka's greatest lieutenants alienated him fi'om his native 
land, and became the means of carrying fire and sword 
north of the Drakenberg Mountains as far as Bamangwato. 
Moselekatsi, whom Captain Harris styles the "Lion of 
the North," was this lieutenant. Wherever he moved de- 
struction and death marked his path, and he soon succeeded 
in rearing another cruel military despotism over the graves 
of those whom he had conquered. 

The last army of Chaka which went forth to destroy 
was itself destroyed by one of those strange judgments 
which bear analogy to that inflicted on the hosts of Sen- 
nacherib. A nation dwelling close to the Palula river had 
to be conquered, but before this place was reached a fright- 
ful disease, styled " blood sickness," broke out, and was so 
fatal in its results that only a few men of the great army 
were able to return to tell the tale. Scarcely had this 
event occurred, when the tyrant was himself assassinated. 
Chaka was seated peacefully in his kraal, near the Umvoti 
river, surrounded by his councillors and principal officers, 
when a band of desperate men, headed by his brother 



6 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

Dingaan, rushed among them, and each, seizing his victim, 
plunged a spear into his heart. Thus perished the Napo- 
leon of the Zulu race, by the hand of his own nearest 
relative, and at a moment when he did not suspect treachery 
or dream of any insurrection against his w^ell-consolidated 
power. 

Dingaan — ^'poor fellow!" — w^as no doubt secretly 
encouraged by a .large portion of the Zulu people. A 

number of the principal captains and friends of the late 
monarch fled, and several were put to death. The new 
capital was removed from the Umvati river to the White 
Umvolosi river, distant 45 miles in a direct line from the 
sea, and about 160 miles from D'Urban. The favour that 
had been extended by Chaka to the few Englishmen w^ho 
arrived in Natal with Mr. H. Fj^m was a sufficient reason 
for the adoption by his successor of an exactly opposite 
policy. An army of 3000 men was sent to D'Urban, 
and the few English settlers escaped with the utmost 
difficulty. Every vestige of property was destroyed. 
Quietness was, however, restored in a few j^ears afterwards, 
and in the year 1883 Dingaan sent down spies to find out 
what progress had been made by the intruders. 

Captain Allen Gardiner arrived in 1835, and proceeded 
to the great place of the king. This missionary traveller 
mentions incidentally that, according to treaty, he brought 
back several men who had fled from the cruel despotism of 
the Zulu monarch. These captives fully calculated upon 
being j)ut to death. Captain Gardiner pleaded for them^ 
and was able to assure them that the king had. promised 



DING A AN AND THE BOEBS, 7 

to spare their lives. Nowha, one of tlie unfortunate 
prisoners, mournfully replied, ^' They are killing us 
now ; " and they were all cruelly tortured to death by 
starvation.* 

In consequence of various causes, among which dis- 
content with British rule requires prominent mention, a 
number of Dutch farmers left the Cape Colony in 1835, 
and, under the command of Pieter Eetief, crossed the Dra- 
kensberg Mountains in 1837, and entered Natal. Their 
leader proceeded to Dingaan's capital, for the purpose of 
negotiating a treaty of peace and obtaining a formal 
cession of territor}^ In the last week of January, 1838, 
Pieter Eetief, accompanied by seventy picked horsemen, 
crossed the Buffalo river, and on the 2nd of February 
arrived at Dingaan's kraal. The Zulu monarch fixed the 
4th of February as the day for signing a formal cession of ■ 
an immense district in Natal to the emigrant Boers. The 
necessary document, drawn out by the Eev. Mr. Owen, 
missionary, with Dingaan, was duly signed, and business 
having been satisfactorily concluded, the Dutchmen were 
invited into the king's kraal to take leave of Dingaan. As 
requested, Eetief and his followers left their arms outside. 
The Zulu monarch, surrounded by his favourite regiments, 
conversed in the most friendly manner, and while a 
"stirrup cup" of maize beer was in course of being 
drunk, suddenly cried out, '' Bulala matagati ! " — '' Kill 
the wizards ! " These words were the signal for a cruel 

* Strange to say, this Captain Allen Gardiner met the same cruel death 
som.e years afterwards, in South America. 



8 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

massacre. More than 3000 savages beat to death, with 
knobkerries, the unfortunate Dutchmen who had been 
weak enough to trust to Zulu promises and Zulu honesty. 
The corpses of the slaughtered men were dragged out of 
the kraal to an adjacent hillock, and there allowed to 
become the prey of wolves and vultures. 

Dingaan looked upon the massacre of the farmers who 
had vainly trusted to his honour as only a commencement 
of hostilities. Ten remments were immediatelv ordered 
out to exterminate all the Dutch emigrants. While these 
people were, without suspicion, waiting for the return of 
their husbands and relatives, a Zulu army crawled up to 
their nearest camp, near the Blaauwkrantz river, close to 
the present commemorative town of Weenen, or " Weeping." 
A sudden surprise at the dawn of day was effected, and 
then ensued the barbarous murder in cold blood of every 
man, woman, and child. Other detachments surprised 
other parties, and few escaped. The destroying army 
moved swiftly southward and towards the sea. Wherever 
the " laager " plan was adopted, it was successful ; and at 
" Necht Laager," on the Bushmans river, a few deter- 
mined men succeeded in defending themselves against an 
overwhelming force of savages. The engagement lasted 
all day, but when the farmers' ammunition was nearly 
exhausted, the fire from a 3-pounder, rigged at the back 
of one of the waggons, killed several Zulu chiefs, and 
caused a precipitate retreat. The men who w^ere after- 
wards able to visit the principal scenes of slaughter dis- 
covered frightful scenes of horror and misery. Waggons 



SLAUGHTER OF ENGLISH. 9 

were demolished, and by their ruins lay the corpses of 
men, women, and children abandoned to the wild beasts. 
Among the heaps of dead found at Weenen two young girls 
were picked out, one of whom had been pierced by nine- 
teen assegai stabs, and the other by twenty-one. Both 
survived, although they remained cripples for life. It is 
estimated that in one week 600 white settlers were 
sacrificed as victims to the savage treachery of Dingaan. 

Vengeance was determined upon by the Dutch emi- 
grants, and a party of 400, having placed themselves 
under the command of Piet Uys and of Hendrik Pot- 
gieter, advanced from the Klip Eiver Division against 
Dingaan. This took place in April, 1838 ; but unfortu- 
nately, shortly before, a party of Englishmen from 
D'Urban, with 700 friendly Zulus, having crossed the 
Tugela river near its mouth and destroyed a native town, 
the army of Dingaan, which had been kept in reserve, 
suddenly surrounded them and killed nearly every Euro- 
pean.* The conquerors followed up their success as far 
as D'Urban, and forced the few white people then resident 
there to take refuge on board a vessel named the Comet, 
fortunately lying at anchor in the bay. Dingaan, with his 
principal forces, watched the Dutch emigrants, and learned 
that Piet Uys and Hendrik Potgieter had placed them- 
selves at the head of 400 men, with the object of invading 
Zululand. The wily savage allowed the Dutchmen to 
advance to a place closed in between two hills, within a 

* The names of the principal Englishmen killed are — E. Biggar, Cane, 
Stubbs, Eichard Wood, William Wood, Henry Batt, John Campbell, Thomas 
Campbell, and Thomas Garden. 



10 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

few miles of his capital, and thence led them to a valley, 
where a desperate hand-to-hand combat took place. The 
farmers had been accustomed to fight by firing from horse- 
back, and then falling back rapidly to reload. They were 
so hemmed in by their position, that this mode of procedm:e 
was impossible, and they were at last, in desperation, com- 
pelled to concentrate their fire on one portion of the Zulu 
host. They then charged through the gap thus made, 
and escaped. Unfortunately, Piet Uys did not succeed in 
cutting his way through, and died with his son, fighting 
bravely against terrible odds. After this disastrous engage- 
ment, the Boers were so disheartened that hostilities were 
for some time suspended. They were renewed in August, 
1838, when Dingaan attacked the Dutch in their laagers, 
but was in all cases repulsed with loss. Towards the 
close of that year,' an army of 10,000 Zulus attacked the 
Dutch farmers in a strongly intrenched position at the 
Umslatoos river. The engagement took place on Sunday, 
the 16th of December. For three hours overwhelming 
masses of natives endeavoured to force the emigrant camp, 
until Pretorius, finding that ammunition was beginning 
to fail, ordered 200 men to sally forth on horseback, 
and take the enemy in flank. This manoeuvre was suc- 
cessful, and the forces of Dingaan were compelled to fly,, 
after leaving a large number on the field.* After this 
decisive battle 5000 head of cattle were captured, and an 
advance was made to the hillock where lay the mortal 

* The Dutch say 3000 Zulus were killed ; but this is probably a great 
exaggeration. 



ARRIVAL OF MAJOR CHARTERIS. 11 

remains of Eetief and the brave men who perished with 
him. A frightful and ghastly spectacle was beheld : 
broken skulls, on which could be seen the marks of the 
knobkerries and stones with which they had been fractured, 
bones of legs and arms, and, strange to say, the skeleton 
of Eetief, recognizable by a leathern pouch or bandoleer, in 
which was found the deed signed by Dingaan, resigning 
to the emigrant farmers " the place called Port Natal, 
together with all the land annexed ; that is to say, from 
the Tugela to the Umzimvoboo river, and from the sea 
to the north, as far as the land may be useful and in my 
possession." 

On the return of the emigrant Boers from this very 
successful attack on the Zulus, they were surprised to find 
that a small detachment of Highlanders, under the 
command of Major Charteris had taken possession of the 
Bay of Natal. This was done by order of Sir George 
Napier, Governor of the Cape Colony, from a desire* ''to 
put an end to the unwarranted occupation of parts of the 
territories belonging to the natives by certain emigrants of 
the Cape Colony, being subjects of his Majesty." No 
conflict, however, took place at this time. The Dutch were 
busily employed during the year 1839 in laying out the 
towns of Pietermaritzburg f and D' Urban, as well as in 
appointing landrosts or magistrates, and establishing regu- 
lations for the government of the country. Dingaan fre- 
quently sent in ambassadors charged with messages of 

* Proclamation in the Government Gazette. 

t Called after a Dutchman named Pieter Maritz. 



12 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

peace, but it was soon discoyered that this was merely a 
plan for carrying out a system of espionage. 

A brother of Dingaan, named Panda, who had been 
generally looked upon with contempt as a mere sensualist 
who was undisposed for the fatigues of warfare, became an 
object of jealousy to the king, in consequence of a large 
party among the Zulus, who were tired of constant fighting 
and bloodshed, showing some disposition to prefer him 
to his brother. An attempt to capture and kill Panda 
was followed by his flight across the Tugela into Natal, 
and his application to the Dutch emigrant farmers for as- 
sistance. Such an opportunity was gladly seized upon ; 
and in the next year (1840) an army of Panda's, 4000 
strong, was joined by 400 mounted farmers, under the 
command of Andries Pretorius. While the forces were 
mustering in Pietermaritzburg, an ambassador from 
Dingaan, named Tamboosa, arrived, bringing proposals for 
peace. Upon being seized and questioned, this messenger 
admitted that one of the objects of his mission was to 
obtain every possible information, with a view of reporting 
it to his master. This, however, by no means justified the 
blunder and crime committed by the Dutch farmers, who 
put Tamboosa to death, and would not even listen to his 
prayer for mercy on behalf of his 3^oung attendant, who 
suffered with him. Scarcely was this execution over when 
the armies of Dingaan and Panda met in battle. In this 
fierce encounter two regiments were entirely destroyed, and 
the fortune of the day declared in favour of Panda, merely 
in consequence of a portion of his brother's army deserting 



PANDA PROCLAIMED KING. 13 

in his favour. The Dutch farmers vigorously followed up 
this success, and forced Dingaan to take shelter among a 
small tribe close to Delagoa Bay, who killed him in order 
to secure the favour of his conquerors. 

On the 14th of February, 1840, and on the banks of the 
Umvolosi river, the emigrant Boers proclaimed Panda 
king of the Zulu people, and at the same time declared that 
their own sovereignty extended from St. Lucia Bay to the 
Umzimvoboo (St. John's). Shortly previous to this date, 
Sir George Napier had ordered the British garrison to 
abandon D'Urban, and Captain Jervis, who held the local 
command, said, on the occasion of his departure, that he 
wished the inhabitants peace and happiness, hoping that 
they would cultivate these beautiful regions in quiet and 
prosperity, "ever regardful of the rights of the people 
whose country you have adopted, and whose home you 
have made your own." We cannot be surprised that, under 
all the circumstances, the emigrant Boers looked upon 
Natal as rightfully their country, and that the British 
Government had even abandoned it in their favour. Having 
assisted in conquering Dingaan, and placed Panda upon 
the throne, there was no reason to fear native aggressions. 
No fewer than 36,000 head of cattle were given in by the 
new monarch as an indemnity, so that the Boers were 
able to settle down not only in peace, but with considerable 
additional means at their disposal. 

The government adopted by this society of farmers 
was of an exceedingly ill-concerted character, and soon 
proved to be essentially anarchic and unworkable. The 



14: HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

legislative, executive, and judicial powers were centred 
in a Yolksraad of twenty-four members, who^were required 
to assemble every three months at Pietermaritzburg. All 
the members performed their duties gratuitously, but 
landrosts, each of whom enjoyed a salary of £100 per 
annum, were appointed at the chief town, as w^ell as 
at D'Urban and Weenen. Two or three members of 
the Volksraad, who happened to live near Pietermaritz- 
burg, formed what was styled the Commissie Eaad, to 
whom executive functions requiring immediate despatch 
were entrusted; but whatever they did had to be sub- 
mitted for approval to the entire Volksraad. Besides, 
a federal bond of union existed with the Winburg, Caledon, 
and Madder districts of the Orange Free State, from which 
places delegates were sent. The acts of the Commissie 
Kaad, as well as those of the permanent officials, were so 
assailed in the Volksraad, and such personal and offensive 
attacks were indulged in by this body, that good govern- 
ment became impossible ; and so little was law respected, 
that Judge Cloete informs us that when he arrived as 
Commissioner in 1843, the landrost of Pietermaritzburg 
informed him that a judgment which he had passed several 
months before, against a respectable inhabitant living only 
a few miles from that town, ordering him to return cattle 
which he had illegally withheld from a Hottentot, was still 
a dead letter, as the defendant had openly declared he 
would shoot the first messenger of the law who should 
dare to come on his premises. 

The Yolksraad of the Boers had applied to the Governor 



TEE ENGLISH AND THE BOEBS. 15 

of the Cape Colony for acknowledgment and recognition 
of the State as free and independent, and Sir George Napier 
had returned an answer by no means unfavourable, but 
their conduct soon made it evident that it would be im- 
possible to grant their petition. Stock was stolen from 
Natal farmers towards the end of the year 1840, and armed 
burghers, under Andries Pretorius, were instructed to pursue 
the thieves. Traces of cattle, supposed to be those stolen, 
were followed to some kraals of the Amabaka tribe, and 
without any delay these people were attacked, several 
killed, 3000 head of cattle and 250 sheep and goats carried 
off. At the same time seventeen children were seized — in 
fact, captured as slaves. The conduct of Pretorius was 
approved by the Volksraad, but Sir George Napier found 
himself obliged to reprobate it in the strongest language. 
British troops were immediately sent to the Umgasi river, 
between the Kei and the Umzimvoboo, and his Excellency 
declined any further intercourse with the emigrant Boers, 
unless they distinctly acknowledged that they were subjects 
of the Queen of England. Although the Home Government 
was at that time very reluctant to extend its colonial 
possessions, a despatch was sent to Sir George Napier, in 
which he was informed that her Majesty could not acknow- 
ledge the independence of her own subjects, but that the 
trade of the emigrant Boers would be placed upon the same 
footing as that of any other British settlement, upon their 
receiving a military force to exclude the interference with 
the country by any other European power. It was then 
within the option of the Boers to secure all the substantial 



IQ HIS TOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

advantages of self government ; but as in the Transvaal 
now, so in Natal at the period in question — obstinate folly 
animated the councils of the people, and an ultimatum was 
sent, stating their intention "to remain on" the same foot- 
ing as heretofore." Upon this. Sir George Napier issued 
a proclamation, in which it was stated that as the emigrant 
farmers had refused to be recognised or treated as British 
subjects, and had recently passed a resolution by which all 
Kafirs inhabiting Natal were to be removed, without their 
consent, into the country of Faku (Pondoland), military 
occupation of the colony would be resumed. Shortly 
afterwards, the troops stationed at the Umgazi camp were 
ordered to march to Natal. This small force, consisting of 
250 men, besides a small party of the Cape corps and two 
field-pieces, arrived safely at D' Urban, and a few days 
afterwards the brig Pilot came to anchor in the bay, bring- 
ing them stores and provisions, as well as two 18-pounders 
and ammunition. This vessel was soon afterwards followed 
by the schooner Mazejjpa. 

The Yolksraad of the emigrant Boers was astonished 
and indignant at the military occupation of D'Urban, and 
more than 300 men, under Andries Pretorius, were im- 
mediately ordered out. The capture of some cattle, and 
the receipt of a letter ordering him to quit Natal, so en- 
raged the commander of the small English force, that 
he led a night attack against the Dutch camp at Congella. 
So ill managed, however, was the expedition, that Captain 
Smith was repulsed and his guns captured. Out of 140 men 
whom he led in this unfortunate affray no fewer than 



THE ENGLISH BESIEGED. 17 

103 were killed, wounded, and missing. He then saw that 
his little force was reduced to extremities, but exerted him- 
self most indefatigably and perseveringly to resist to the 
last. A fortification something similar in character to a 
laager was formed at D'Urban, by means of the numerous 
waggons in the camp, with the requisite trenches and mounds. 
The Dutch Boers fortunately allowed the time in which 
they should have taken advantage of their victory to pass 
by, and soon saw that, in consequence of their inertness, 
a conquest which in the first instance would have been easy 
was now converted into a siege. In the mean time Ca^Dtain 
Smith was able to send off for assistance to the Cape Colony. 
Eichard King, then living in a hut at D'Urban, volunteered 
to carry the despatches. Mr. G. C. Cato conveyed him and 
his horses across the channel to the Bluff, and then he 
rode off, leading a spare horse, and before daybreak 
succeeded in passing the Umcomas river. There he was 
safe from the danger of pursuit, but had to face the perils 
of crossing two hundred rivers, and of traversing a wild 
country inhabited by savages. Upon this slender thread 
hung the destinies of the British in Natal. 

Encouraged by their success, the Boers overpowered 
the detachment of British troops stationed at the Point, 
and took most of the English residents prisoners to Pieter- 
maritzburg.* Then all their efforts were directed against 
the fort, in which Captain Smith had been able to mount 

* A little vessel, the Mazeppa, Captain Cato, escaped from the inner 
harbour, although fired upon by the Boers, and proceeded to Delagoa Bay 
in order to obtain assistance. She found no British man-of-war there, and 
on her return to Natal H.M.S. Southampton had arrived. 



• 



.18 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

an 18-pounder and to secure provisions and ammunition. 
The farmers, who had three field-pieces, carried on a heavy 
cannonade for three days, and when they had exhausted 
their ammunition, turned the siege into a rigorous blockade. 
Two sorties made by the garrison were unavailing, and at 
last the rations were reduced to the smallest quantity suffi- 
cient to sustain life ; dried horseflesh became the principal 
article of food, aiid the utmost anxiety prevailed as to the 
success of Eichard King, and the arrival of reinforcements 
from the Cape Colony. Many a time eyes were strained 
for some sign of assistance ; at last, on the night of the 
24th of June, they saw, with inexpressible relief, the rockets 
and blue lights which announced that a vessel with rein- 
forcements had arrived. 

Dick Kino- had succeeded. After a ride of manv 
hundreds of miles over trackless, unknown, and savage 
regions, he had safely reached the Cape Colony. It was 
on the ninth day after he left the Bluff at Natal that he 
arrived, almost exhausted, in Graham's To^m. Colonel 
Hare, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Eastern Pro-vdnce, 
immediately sent the grenadier company of the 27th Eegi- 
ment, in the schooner Conch, from Port Elizabeth, and 
when Sir George Napier heard the news in Cape Town, 
he lost no time in persuading Admiral Percy to despatch 
the flagship Southampton, with the 25th Eegiment on board, 
under the command of Colonel Cloete. The ship of war 
arrived at Natal only one day after the Conch. A landing 
was immediately effected with very trifling loss ; the Boer 
force was driven back to the Congelia. A gale of wind 



DISMAY OF TEE BOERS. 19 

drove the Southampton to sea, and suj)plies became so 
scarce that Colonel Cloete was obliged to obtain the services 
of Zulus to secure cattle. Some of these killed two Dutch 
farmers, and this gave occasion to a panic among the 
Boers, who precipately fled to Pietermaritzburg. 

Amidst great consternation and great confusion, a 
meeting of the Yolksraad was held in the church at Pieter- 
maritzburg, when recriminations, quarrelling, and loud 
talking occupied the entire Sunday. At last it was re- 
solved to propose terms of peace to Colonel Cloete ; but the 
ignorance and simplicity of the Boers were displayed by 
their holding out as a threat the succour they might receive 
from the King of Holland, to whom letters had some time 
previously been sent by the hands of a trader named 
Smellekamp. After negotiations. Colonel Cloete granted 
an amnesty to all except four ringleaders, and Natal was 
peaceably once more under the rule of the British Crown. 
These transactions took place in 1842 ; and in the follow- 
ing year the Honourable Henry Cloete, afterwards a Judge 
of the Supreme Court of the Cape Colony, was sent to Natal 
as her Majesty's Commissioner, with ample authority to 
inaugurate a settled system of government, and to put an 
end to the anarchy and confusion which prevailed. By 
the exercise of great tact and judgment he was successful. 
A powerful radical faction in the Volksraad opposed sub- 
mission in the most outrageous and foolish manner. They 
even adopted a iDlan to assassinate the leading members of 
the peace party ; but Andries Pretorius, one of the latter, 
and a wise, true friend of his adopted country, having dis- 



20 



HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 



covered the plot, exposed it publicly, and brought its 
authors to shame. Judge Cloete tells us that this patriot 
addressed the meeting in a strain of impassioned extem- 
poraneous eloquence not unworthy of Cicero when de- 
nouncing Cataline, and turned the tide so powerfully 
against the would-be assassins as to entirely defeat their 
plot. Entire submission to the British Government 
followed. Major Smith was succeeded by Colonel Boj^s, of 
the 45th Kegiment, as military commandant, and his 
Honour Martin West, resident magistrate of Graham's 
Town, was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor of 
Natal. 



( 21 ) 



CHAPTER II. 

NATIVE POLICY IX NATAL. LAWS, CUSTOMS, AND 
RELIGION OF THE ZULUS. 

The protection of the natives was the professed object of 
the British Government in taking possession of Natal. The 
conquests of Chaka had driven no fewer than 100,000 
fugitives to the westward of the Tugela river, and how to 
rule this vast and fast increasing number of natives soon 
became a problem fraught both with difficulty and danger. 
Mr. Theophilus Shepstone, son of a Wesleyan missionar}^, 
thoroughly conversant with the Kafir language, customs, 
manners, and habits, was appointed to take charge of the 
numerous natives of Natal. His policy can be very briefly 
described. It was to keep all the coloured races enth'ely 
distinct from the white population. They were collected 
in locations, and governed by their own laws, through 
their own chiefs, under Mr. Shepstone as the great chief. 
Large tracts of country, rugged and mountainous, were set 
apart for the various tribes, and there, in an Italian 
cHmate, and in the lap of a most productive and generous 
soil, they increased and multiplied. Christianity and real 



22 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

civilization were ignored, and a most dangerous imperium in 
imperio created. The wretched refugees who fled from the 
Zulu tyrant found their lot in Natal incomparably more 
happy than in the precarious existence of former days. 
Their easy, savage, sensuous life made them useless 
citizens, and when labour was required for the sugar 
plantations on the coast, it had to be obtained from India. 
However smoothly and well the native policy seemed to 
work, it soon became very evident that the 20,000 white 
people of Natal were really seated on a political volcano. 
Three hundred thousand heathen savages of an alien race 
had the power to rise and destroy them at any moment, 
and it was impossible to be sure that they might not at any 
time have the inclination. All the checks which religion 
and civilization place on men had been deliberately cast 
aside. No doubt the Zulu monarch was feared ; but there 
can be no doubt also that if the dread paramount ruler of 
the Zulu race had at any time crossed the Tugela as a 
conqueror, tens of thousands of his own race in the colony 
would have joined him out of fear, and hastened to prove 
their loyalty by the massacre of every white inhabitant of 
Natal. This is no fanciful idea, but sober earnest fact.* 

There was no difficulty at first in subjecting to proper 
control the broken, dispirited bands of refugees, who sought 
shelter, food, and protection in Natal ; and if right methods 

The writer has been assured of this by old inhabitants, who spoke the 
Zulu tongue like natives, and had been brought up with Zulu refugees. 
There is no doubt whatever that if Cetywayo had entered Katal with a large 
victorious army, one of the most awful massacres on record would have been 
the result. 



THE SEEPS TONE NATIVE FOLIO Y. 23 

had been adopted, one of the finest "races of the African 
continent would have been raised fi*om a state of loathsome 
degradation to one of civilization — saved from heathenism 
themselves to become coadjutors with the white races in 
raising the country to real prosperity. In place of this, 
the cruel slavery of polygamy was permitted, which allows 
the men to live in independent idleness by means of the 
severe drudgery of their oppressed wives. Grossly impure 
and inhuman laws and practices, incluchng the vile super- 
stitions of witchcraft, were tolerated and allowed. No 
country could advance under such ckcumstances, and the 
colony of Natal, therefore, remains at the present day what 
it has always been — immeasurably behind the Cape of 
Good Hope ; a land of samples in which nothing really 
succeeds, and where sugar, which forms its principal 
export, is even now a doubtful experiment, on which labour 
imported from India at enormous cost has to be employed ; 
a lovely country, whose fertility is almost as great as its 
beauty, but cursed by a most unchristian, wicked, and 
foolish system of government, so far as the great bulk of 
the population is concerned. It would have been very easy 
at the outset to establish comparatively small locations, 
presided over by British magistrates, who would have 
administered justice according to British law. If, in addi- 
tion, title-deeds had been given in such a manner as to 
give individual rights, then, in the words of the Eev. W. C. 
Holden,* the large number of natives within the colony 
might have been converted into men who would take a real 

* " History of the Colony of Natal," p. 205. 



24 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

interest in the country and soil, for the defence of which 
they would fight and die. They would have become a strong 
wall of defence against the Zulu on the east, and the 
Amaxosa on the west, instead of a source of continual 
danger and alarm.* Slavery was abolished everywhere 
throughout the British dominions, with the one excep* 
tion of Natal. There 50,000 women were sold for wives 
to the highest bidder, as horses, cattle, and goods at an 
auction mart, under the special sanction and special 
arrangement of the Queen's Government. 

Before proceeding further, it is necessary to pass briefly 
in review the laws, manners, and customs of the Zulu race. 
Without a knowledge of this subject it will be perfectly 
impossible to appreciate the policy of Sir Bartle Frere, or 
to understand either the real causes of the war, or of many 
'events in its progress. We have seen that Chaka, the Zulu 
•conqueror, formed a great militar}^ nation. His successors 
ivere S]3ecially warriors, and as the people chose similar 
iveapons to those with which the ancient Komans conquered 
the world, so, like that people, were they fully animated with 
the feeling that virtus, or the highest possible merit, con- 
sisted in bravery in the field of battle. The Boers desj^ised 
the enemy, and hundreds of their bravest men fell victims. 
Almost about the same time, the English settlers at 

* Sir George Grey, writing many years ago, tells ns of tte Maox'ies in New- 
Zealand, that nearly tlie whole nation has now been converted to Christianity; 
that they are fond of agriculture ; take great pleasure in cattle and horses ; 
like the sea and form good sailors, have now many coasting vessels of their 
own ; are attached to Europeans, and admire their customs and manners ; 
and that they are extremely ambitious of rising in civilization, and becoming 
skilled in European arts. 



ZULU CUSTOMS. 25 

D'Urban made the same mistake, and 2000 of their Kafir 
allies, as well as several of their own number, were slaugh- 
tered and left to be devoured by beasts of prey on the 
hills of Zululand. History repeats itself : Lord Chelmsford 
made the same mistake, which was expiated in the blood 
of hundreds of British soldiers on the field of Isandhlwana. 
Among the Zulus every female child is so much pro- 
perty, and in this respect treated exactly like a chattel or 
beast of burden. Her life is one of the grossest degradation 
and slavery. When she has reached the age of puberty 
disgusting ceremonies are performed, and there is no idea 
or appreciation of chastity. The most brutal lust is not 
only tolerated, but actually enforced by law. When a girl 
is married, she is merely sold to the highest bidder, entirely 
without reference to her own consent, and then becomes 
the slave of her husband, for whom she has to labour in the 
field and perform menial work. The day after the party of 
a bride has arrived at her owner's hut, the peculiar cere- 
mony takes place of the woman being allowed and enjoined 
to tax her powers to the utmost to use abusive language to 
her lord. She pours every insulting and provoking epithet 
she can think of upon him, this being the last time in 
which she is permitted to act and speak independently. 
At last she takes a certain feather out of her head, by 
means of which the act of marriage, or rather of going into 
slavery, becomes complete. Mr. Holden speaks of the great 
obscenity at "marriage" celebrations, and remarks that 
''no respectable pages can be defiled with a description of 
what then takes place, especially in connection with the 



26 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

marriage of men of rank and chiefs. There is full licence 
given to wholesale debauchery, and both men and women 
glory in their shame." * It is impossible to pursue this 
subject further. This is certain, that the very grossest and 
most filthy obscenities and immoralities are absolutely en- 
joined and required by Zulu law and custom. Marriage 
is entirely a misnomer. To quote from an excellent au- 
thority, '' No word corresponding to the Saxon word ' wife ' 
is found in the Zulu language. The term most nearly 
approaching to it is umkake, and its correlatives imikako and 
umkami, which means his she or female. The man owns his 
wives as truly, according to native law, as he does his spear 
or his goat, and he speaks of them accordingly." The owner 
of the woman says, "I have paid so many cattle for you; 
therefore you are iny slave, my dog, and your proper place 
is under my feet." One of these poor slaves, when seen 
standing by a load far too great for her strength, was asked 
if she could carry it. She stood up and ingenuously re- 
marked, *' If I were a man I could not, but I am a woman." 
There is no slavery in the world more sad or deplorable 
than that to which the poor women of the Zulu nation are 

subjected.! 

Spiritualism is the religion of the Zulu, and witchcraft 
is the machinery by means of which it is practised. Only 
a very vague idea exists about a Supreme Being, and the 

* " The Past and Future of the Kafir Eaces," p. 198. 

f The common price of a wife is from ten to twelve head of cattle, but 
a strong and young woman of good muscular frame often commands as 
many as fifty oxen. When the sale is completed, the woman must go into 
slavery, and, if she run away, is frequently hunted for with dogs. 



RELIGION OF THE ZULUS. 27 

definite national faith embraces only a belief in the in- 
fluence of the spirits of deceased ancestors. The ghosts 
of departed chiefs and warriors are specially respected and 
feared. It is to these spirits that they attribute all the 
power given by Christians to God, and the witch-doctors 
are the mediums or priests of the worship. A knowledge 
of subtle and jDowerful vegetable poisons exists, and so 
common is the practice of secret poisoning that universal 
safeguards are used against it. Every one who gives food 
to another takes a part himself, in proof that it contains 
no poison. Besides deadly drugs, there is what is styled 
the ^^ubuti," or bewitching matter, which is supposed to be 
deposited in some secret place, and to be made the instru- 
ment of evil by means of supernatural agency. The 
*'isanusi," or witch-doctors, are the go-betweens, whose duty 
it is to discover and to avert evil. These men fill the 
threefold office of doctors, priests, and soothsayers. They 
heal diseases, offer sacrifices, and exercise the art of 
divination. As they are assumed to have full power over 
the invisible world, their influence is enormous, and is 
readily taken advantage of by chiefs and powerful men, for 
the purpose of destroying enemies and promoting schemes 
of war and plunder. A youth who aspires to be enrolled 
among the isanusi gives early signs of being destined for 
the office. He dreams of the spirits of the departed chiefs 
of his people, sees visions, falls into fits of frenzy ; he 
catches snakes and twists them round his person, seeks 
out medicinal roots, and goes for instruction to experienced 
isanusi. At last what is called a " change in the moon" 



281, HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR.- 

takes place within him ; he becomes a medium fitted to 
hold converse with spirits, and is able to communicate 
with them. One of the greatest authorities who has ever 
lived with and studied the Kafir races — Mr. Warner — says, 
*^It is impossible to suppose that these priests are not, 
to a considerable extent, self-deceived, as well as the de- 
ceivers of others; and there is no difficulty, to one who 
believes the Bible" to be a divine revelation, in supposing 
that they are also to a certain extent under Satanic in- 
fluence ; for the idolatrous and heathen nations of the 
earth are declared in the inspired volume to be, in a 
peculiar manner, under the influence and power of the 
devil." 

Every illness and misfortune is supposed to be caused 
by witchcraft. It usually happens that the suspected 
person is a rich man, or some one on whom it is thought 
desirable to wreak vengeance. The people of the kraal and 
neighbourhood go in a body to the isanusi, who, before 
their arrival, foretells their approach, and makes other 
revelations, frequently so extraordinary that the Eev. 
Mr. Holden,* who is thoroughly conversant with the subject, 
states that there is much greater difficulty in explaining 
these phenomena by ordinary means than by supernatural 
interposition. The whole company, on arrival, sit down 
and salute the witch-doctor; they are then told to beat 
the ground with their sticks, and while this is in course 
of being done, he repeatedly shouts out, "Yeswa! " — ''He 
is here ! " He discloses secrets about the accused, and at 

* " Kafir Kaces," p. 287. 



WITCH DOCTORS. ^ 29 

l^st, -fixing his eyes upon the doomed one, charges him 
with the crime. Generally the isanusi succeeds in selecting 
''the suspected person ; but if he fail, a circle is formed, and 
a wild, frenzied dance performed, amidst most frightful 
gesticulations and cries. Among the Zulus, not only is the 
unfortunate person killed whom the witch-doctor declares 
guilty, but his wife and children are murdered, and his 
property seized. Among the Amaxosa Kafirs, the most 
frightful tortures are used to induce the unfortunate victim 
to confess.* It is difficult to appreciate adequately the 
enormous power of the witch-doctors. It was in 1857 that 
Umhlakaza was made a willing tool in the hands of Kreli, 
Sandilli, and Umhala for the purpose of a war of extermi- 
nation against the whites. It was prophesied that if the 
people destroyed their cattle and corn, the whole would 
rise again with vast increase, and that their enemies 
would be utterly destroyed. Sir George Grey had taken 
every precaution, and war was therefore made impossible. 
Like the witches in "Macbeth," the prophet had merely 
lured on his victims to destruction. Having burned their 
ships, by destroying all their resources there was no escape, 

* The Hon. Mr. GodlontoB, in his case for the colonists, gives us details 
of one of the very numerous cases of torture inflicted on men whose only 
guilt was their wealth, and who fell victims to the avarice of their tor- 
mentors. Although this poor victira implored for death, it was not granted 
to him until he had been literally roasted. Eed-hot stones were placed on 
his groin, and when they slipped off, were held in position by means of 
sticks. Another very common torture is that of smearing a victim, and 
then allowing him to be slowly eaten up by black ants or scorpions, whose 
thousand bites and stings produce lingering and excruciating torture. All 
these infernal proceedings take place in connection with the spiritualist 
religion, and are carried out by the order and direction of its priests. 



30 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

and, in spite of the humane exertions of the colonists, 
70,000 human beings perished of famine in a land of 
plenty. It will thus be seen how an entire people can 
easily be induced to embark in the most desperate 
undertakings by the skilful use of the superstitious 
means at the disposal of their chiefs. Sacrifices of 
beasts are offered by the jDriests, according to prescribed 
rules. These are made to the spirits of the departed. 
A hut is sacredly cleaned and set apart, in which the 
sacrifice is shut up during the night, in order that 
the '^ isituta," or spirits, may drink in its flavour. On 
the next day the place is opened, and the meat devoured 
by the people. All sacrifices, with trifling exceptions, must 
be offered by priests. The blood is never spilt, but caught 
in a vessel, and it is necessary to bm*n the bones. The 
frenzy or inspired madness characteristic of the priests 
of the ancient oracles is commonly assumed by the priests 
of the Zulu spiritualists, and many of their ceremonies are 
occult, and have never been made known to Europeans. 

The Zulu government is thoroughly despotic. The will 
of the tyrant is law, and he has unlimited power of life or 
death. We have seen that Chaka sacrificed ever^^thing to 
military power, and in order to succeed, banished even 
circumcision, and refused to allow his warriors to marry. 
Women's love and children's tenderness were forbidden to 
the stern soldiers of the new empire. Medicines composed 
of various plants and roots were used to purify the body and 
make it strong, and ordinarily sacrifices were offered for 
the same purpose. The great national sacrifice to make 



GREAT MILITABY BITE. 31 

the army invulnerable is styled ^'ukukufula," wlien flesli 
is cut off the shoulder of a living beast and roasted on 
a fire into which certain charms have been thrown. Each 
man bites off a mouthful, and passes on the meat to the 
next, while the priest makes incisions in parts of their bodies, 
into which he inserts the powdered charcoal of the charms. 
The poor animal is left in torture all this time, and is not 
killed until the ceremonies are ended. A decoction is also 
prepared from medicinal roots, and sprinkled by means of 
the tail of an ox over the bodies of the warriors. All this is 
designed to make the Zulus either invulnerable, or to enable 
them, if the}' do fall in battle, to join triumphantly the 
heroes of their race in the spirit world. The three great 
divisions of the army already referred to, comprising 
''men," "young men," and ''carriers," were sub-divided 
into regiments with a proper staff of officers. The Zulu 
strength is in attack, when with ferocious yells they 
throw themselves with undaunted bravery upon their 
enemy. Two horns advance and endeavour to flank the 
foe, while the main body follows quickly to their support. 
Virtus — military bravery — is their summum honum, and 
death is the immediate penalty of any form of cowardice. 
Extreme cunning and dissimulation are considered essential 
qualifications of a general, so that to lure a foe into am- 
bush, or to deceive him by illusory promises or messages 
of peace, are considered proofs of wisdom and ability. 
Honour, humanity, and generosity are perfectly unknown, 
and merely considered signs of weakness. When an enemy 
is defeated, prisoners are never taken, and those not killed 



32 JIT STORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

in the heat of battle are cruelly tortured and mutilated, 
with every mark of indignity and contempt. Women and 
children are not spared, and the most cruel destruction of 
the most cruel northern barbarians, who devastated Europe, 
pales before the complete and effectual ruin which marks 
the progress of a Zulu conqueror. 

In times of peace the army remains at military kraals, 
and is occasionally called up to the great place of the king 
for review. It is always in a state of readiness, and burn- 
ing for employment. War is the pastime, glory, and wish 
of the men, who eagerly desire to wash their spears in 
blood, that they may obtain the only glory for which they 
care to live, and secure that plunder which can enable 
them to acquire wives and cattle. Nothing could be more 
dangerous, or a more awful threat to a colony, than an 
army of this description under the orders of a despotic 
savage, without the slightest principle, and urged on to 
fight by all the traditions and ideas of his race. Let it be 
remembered also that the country of Natal was once owned 
by the Zulus, and that, while held by a garrison of only 
20,000 whites, there were no fewer than 300,000 savage 
heathen inhabitants in it of similar colour, race, and re- 
ligion to the people of Cetywayo. Once let the flood-gates 
be lifted and a conquering "invulnerable" army enter 
Natal, nothing could prevent the general rising of the vast 
masses of natives within that colony. If that had occurred, 
British dominion would have set in an ocean of blood, and 
every white man, woman, and child in the settlement must 
have been slaughtered. It was one wise, good man who 



SIJR BAB TLB FBEBE. 33 

averted that catastrophe, and his name was Bartle Frere. 
Slowly, but most certaml}', T^all the mists of prejudice be 
lifted from the minds of the English people, and they will 
learn to know that the policy they so much vilified saved 
the British name from dishonour, and the British people 
and British interests in South Africa from destruction. 



D 



34 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 



CHAPTEE III. 

EVENTS PEELIMINARY TO ZULU WAE — COMMENCEMENT 

OF HOSTILITIES. 

Thirty-six years had elapsed since the eventful ride of 
Dick King from D' Urban to Graham's Town. The British 
colony of Natal had grown slowly. Immigrants arrived ; 
a representative Constitution was granted. During this 
period numbers of people of Dutch extraction formed settle- 
ments in the Orange Free State and Transvaal Eepublic. 
The British Government in the first instance established 
sovereignty over the former country, but abandoned it on 
the 23rd of February, 1854. The Eepublic commenced from 
that date. So far as the Transvaal is concerned, Potgieter 
established the town of Potchefstroom in 1839, and soon after 
enormous territory, extending from the Vaal to the Limpopo, 
came under the dominion of the South African Eepublic. 
The first session of Volksraad was held in 1848, and it was 
in 1852 that Pretorius succeeded in obtaining the treaty 
at Sand river, by means of which the independence of 
the Eepublic was recognized by the British Crown. One 
of the first Acts of the Volksraad was to repeal a former 
resolution fixing their southern boundary at the twenty- 



THE TRANSVAAL IN DANGEB. 35 

fifth degree of south latitude, because the Volksraad has 
no means of determining whfere the said degree of south 
latitude is. Amongst the people civilization made slow 
progress. '' Not many years ago," wrote Mr. Thomas 
Baines in his valuable work on the Gold Eegions of South 
Africa, " their own Surveyor-General was mobbed for using 
a theodolite in the streets of Potchefstroom instead of 
stepping off the distance like the Veldt Valkt miester of 
the good old times." Sir Arthur Cunynghame, in his 
recent narrative, gives us yet more amusing and striking 
illustrations of the utter simplicity and ignorance of the 
Boers. As was to be expected under the circumstances, 
the Government was extremely narrow and objectionable ; 
in proof of which it is only necessary to state that no 
Englishman or German was allowed to possess landed 
property, it was forbidden to discover or work minerals, 
while slavery really existed, and was practised under what 
was styled the Apprentice Law, passed in 1856.* In spite 
of the discovery of gold-fields at Pilgrim's Best, the country 
became insolvent, wars with the natives took place, and 
at last such a state of insolvency and danger was attained 
that the British Government found it imperatively neces- 
sary to intervene. The Zulus, under Cetywayo, intended 
to overrun the country, and this would have threatened 
all British South Africa. The northern territory of the 
State had already been abandoned to the natives ; the 
Government was powerless, and all confidence in it had 

* For proof of these cliarges see " Jeppe-Transvaal Book Almanack for 
1879." Gideon Steyn, wlio reported the existence of slavery to Sir P. E. 
Wodehoiise in 1869, was fired at in Potchefstroom. 



36 EISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

fled ; commerce was destroyed, and the comitry was bank- 
rupt. Under these circumstances, Sir Theophilus Shepstone, 
on the 12th of April, 1877, found himself imperatively 
obliged to place the Transvaal territory under the protection 
of the British flag. 

In Natal, under the administration of Sir Benjamin 
Pine, during the year 1873, a rebellion broke out on the 
part of a chief named Langalibalele, which was only pre- 
vented from becoming a general war by the admirably 
prompt action of the local Government. The philanthropic 
societies in England, with Bishop Colenso, championed the 
cause of this rebel, and Sir B. Pine was, in consequence 
of their exertions, recalled. Sir Garnet Wolseley, who 
succeeded that officer, says, " Langalibalele, as I am in- 
formed by all classes here, official and non-official (a small 
knot of men of extreme views excepted), is regarded by the 
native population at large as a chief who, having defied 
the authorities, and in doing so occasioned the murder 
of two white men, is now suffering for that conduct. In 
their opinion his attempts to brave the Government have 
been checkmated, and his banishment from the colony, 
regarded as a lenient punishment by the natives at large, 
cannot fail to be a serious warning to all other Kafir chiefs, 
not only in Natal but in the whole of South Africa, to 
avoid imitating his example." * 

Sir Garnet Wolseley effected an important change in 
the colonial legislature, by adding eight nominee members 
to the Council, which previously consisted of five cx-officio 

* Sir Garnet Wolseley, quoted in the Contemj)orary Review, June, 1879. 



DIAMONDS AND GUNS. 37 

and fifteen elected members. The annexation of the Trans- 
vaal followed ; and, speaking of this, Sir Benjamin Pine 
says that ''the strong ground taken in defence of the 
measure is that its hostilities with the native tribes seriously 
imperilled the peace of our colonies — that it was, in fact, 
a next-door neighbour's house in flames, which might any 
moment set ours on fire. In this respect, the ground for 
annexing the Transvaal Eepublic was very much stronger 
than that which justified our taking possession of Natal. 
The latter country did not at that time touch our boundary 
at any point. It was a house several streets off." 

The discovery of diamonds in South Africa, in 1867, 
exercised by degrees an enormous influence upon the 
attitude of the natives throughout Southern Africa. When 
the success of the dry diggings at the New Kush caused the 
formation of Kimberley, that town became the centre of 
an enormous gun trade. From north and east, thousands of 
Kafirs of various tribes flocked to a place where they could 
obtain, for the reward of their labour, the means of exter- 
minating the hated white man in South Africa. The 
Gealekas under Kreli, the Gaikas of Sandilli, as well as 
the Zulus beyond Natal, were not slow to seize such an 
opportunity. For years the trade continued, and the 
weapons purchased were soon used against the Government 
which permitted their sale. Wars were waged upon the 
eastern and northern borders of the Cape Colony during 
1877, 1878, and 1879. Sir Benjamin Pine, with some 
fancy and a great deal of truth, styles the diamond of the 
Kimberley mines the bloodstone of South Africa. As 



38 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

the Zulu system makes war a necessity constantly thirsted 
for by the army, advantage was taken of the easy oiDiDor- 
tunity of getting firearms afforded by the inconceivable 
blindness and fatuity of the British Government. In the 
year 1877, Cetywayo had quite made up his mind for a 
deadly conflict with the white man. Guns were purchased, 
preparations were made, and the army crouched like a 
tiger in its lair, ready to spring. 

Since the first establishment of the colony of Natal, 
and of the Transvaal Kepublic, the Governments of these 
countries had the Zulu military power suspended, like the 
sword of Damocles, as a perpetual threat over their heads. 
Of course, by the annexation of the latter State in 1877, all 
its responsibilities devolved upon her Majesty's Government. 
Cetywayo, the son of Panda, succeeded his father in the 
year 1872, and it formed part of Sir T. Shepstone's policy 
to conciliate and please him in every possible manner. 
That ofiicer went so far as to attend his coronation, which 
was celebrated with the grandest forms of savage cere- 
monial.* At the same time a number of promises and 
engagements were received from the king. All this was, 
of course, merely a solemn farce. The descendant of 
Dingaan, who first signed a deed giving Natal to the Dutch, 
and then murdered in cold blood the men who had trusted 
to his honour, was not likely to dejDart from the traditions 
and policy of his race. Dissimulation, fraud, and cunning 
are characteristic qualities of every Zulu ruler, and Cety- 

* For a description of this ceremony, see Baines's South Africa. This 
traveller was present on the occasion. 



NATAL IN DANGER. 39 

way 0' excelled in tliem all. The Government of Natal was 
lulled into security, while Bishop Colenso and the well- 
meaning but profoundly ignorant men who form the self- 
styled philanthropic al societies in England have, even up 
to the present moment, been completely hoodwinked and 
deceived. Sir Bartle Frere, writing of Cetywayo's solemn 
promises, says, " None of these promises have been since 
fulfilled ; the cruelties and barbarisms which deformed the 
internal administration of Zululand in Panda's reign have 
been aggravated during the reign of Cetywayo, and his 
relations with his neighbours have been conducted in a 
spirit fatal to peace and security beyond the Zulu border." * 

The well-organized and peculiarly formidable military 
power of the Zulus was still further consolidated and 
strengthened by Cetywayo, so that a standing menace and 
threat of a very serious nature existed against both Natal 
and the Transvaal. Nothing can better prove the danger 
than the fact that the Zulu monarch formally and re- 
peatedly requested the consent of the British Government 
to wars of aggression, which he proposed for the ostensible 
purpose of initiating his young soldiers in bloodshed, and 
reviving the system of unprovoked territorial aggression 
which had been so successful!}^ carried out by the model 
and demi-god of the nation — Chaka. 

A large tract of land on the western boundary of Zulu- 
land, between the Buffalo and Pongolo rivers, which had 
long formed part of the Transvaal, was claimed by the 
Zulus, and they had requested the Natal Government to 

* Memorandum by Ms Excellency the High Commissioner, January, 1879. 



40 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

arbitrate in this matter. Eventually a Commission was 
appointed, which decided that Cetywayo's cession of a tract 
of land rehed on by the Transvaal claim was promised 
when he was only heir apparent, and that the cession had 
not been subsequently formally ratified by his father Panda, 
nor by the great council of the Zulu nation ; therefore the 
country in question had never ceased to belong to them. 
Private rights of hondjide settlers, which could not in justice 
be abrogated, were confirmed, but otherwise the sovereignty 
of the territory was ceded to the Zulus, Since his installa- 
tion the tone of Cetywayo had become entirely altered. 
When a remonstrance was sent against a barbarous murder 
of young women by the king, replies of extreme insolence 
were sent to the Natal Government, and the opportunity 
was taken to state that no responsibility w^as admitted; 
at the same time, the solemn installation promises were 
distinctly denied, and Cetywayo affirmed his intention of 
shedding blood in future on a much greater scale. In 
the latter part of July, 1878, the Zulu chief Sirayo entered 
British territory, carried off two women — British subjects 
— and forcibly put them to death. Kedress was demanded, 
but not given. 

On the 11th of December, 1878, a final message was 
sent to Cetywayo, in which the reasonable and just demands 
of the Government were summarized. He was called upon 
to give up the offenders who had violated British territory, 
and to effect various reforms in the administration of his 
government, in accordance with the solemn promises made 
at his installation. A few informal messages made and 



HOSTILE ATTITUDE OF THE ZULUS. 41 

retracted only served to show the cunning and deceit of 
Cetywayo, and it was clear to demonstration that the Zulu 
potentate and the Zulu army had determined upon war. 

The High Commissioner writes (30th September) to 
the Imperial Government : — '' It is difficult to give any 
adequate idea of the strength of evidence of the state of 
feeling. Zulu regiments are reported as moving about on 
unusual and special errands, several of them organizing 
royal hunts on a great scale in parts of the country where 
little game is to be expected, and where the obvious object 
is to guard the border against attack. The hunters are said 
to have received orders to follow any game they may rouse 
across the border, which it appears is, according to Zulu 
custom, a recognized mode of provoking or declaring war. 
Unusual bodies of armed men are stated to watch all drifts 
and roads leading into Zululand, and these guards are 
occasionally reported as warning off Natal natives from 
entering the Zulu territory, accompanying the warning 
with contemptuous intimation that orders have been given 
to kill all Natalions if they trespass across the border. 
Zulu subjects came hastily into Natal to reclaim cattle 
which they had sent hither to graze, giving as their reason 
that Zululand is so disturbed that they know not what will 
happen. Serious alarm is expressed because three large 
ships have been seen on the coast making for Delagoa Bay, 
and great irritation is expressed by Zulus at the stoppage 
of the supplies of arms and ammunition they used to 
receive through that port. 

" The reports first received of raids into Natal territory 



42 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

by large bodies of armed men, who dragged two refugee 
women out of the huts of British subjects, with expressions 
of contemptuous disregard for what the English Govern- 
ment might think, or say, or do, and the murder of the 
women directly they were on the other side of the boundary 
line, appear to be confirmed in every particular. 

'' There seems to be no doubt that the parties were 
headed by two sons of Sirayo. This chief lives near the 
Natal border, and was well known as extremely anti-English 
in his feelings. Until quite lately he was so little in favour 
with Cetywayo, that he had not for some time attended to 
any summons to the royal kraal. He was nevertheless 
appointed by Cetywayo to represent him at the Boundary 
Commission. Partly, it was said, on account of his rank 
and influence and known antipathy to Europeans, and 
partly because he could not refuse to attend at the royal 
kraal to give an account of his stewardship, he did so 
attend, and in the absence of the prime minister, was 
appointed to act for him, a proceeding which, considering 
his known anti^nglish feeling, is regarded as significant. 

"It is to be remembered that the facts, of which a brief 
summary is here given, have been sifted from a mass of 
very alarming rumours, current during the month, which 
his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor considered more 
doubtful, or unworthy of credit, but which are circulated 
in a manner to increase agitation and excitement on both 
sides of the border." 

The only question remained — Were we to allow the 
enemy to wait for a favourable opportunity and attack 



FIBMNFSS OF SIB BAFiTLE FRERE. 43 

US at an advantage, or protect Natal and British South 
Africa by a pohcy of firmness and consistency ? The 
latter alternative was chosen by her Majesty's High 
Commissioner ; and on the 4th of January, 1879, Sir 
Bartle Frere placed in the hands of Lieutenant- General 
Lord Chelmsford, commanding in South Africa, the further 
enforcement of all demands.* There can be no doubt 
whatever that this course was the only possible one con- 
sistent with the safety of Natal and British South Africa. 
Cetywayo had been long preparing for war, and had most 
fully determined upon it, urged on by the irrepressible 
warlike organization and the army, which thirsted for an 
opportunity of exertion and could not safely be balked. 
Self-preservation and self-defence rendered it absolutely 
necessary that an army should enter Zululand. 

* The High Commissioiier writes : " Government has done its best to 
avoid war by everj means consistent "with honour, and now feels bound to 
use the power with which it has been entrusted to secure the future peace 
and safety alike of her Majesty's dominions in South Africa, and of the 
Zulus and all other neighbouring tribes and people." — Memorandum of his 
Excellency the High Commissioner, 13th January, 1879. 

With reference to the disputed Transvaal land awarded to Cetywayo, 
it has been argued that the territory in question should have been handed 
over to this savage potentate without any reference to the rights of private 
proprietors who had settled down and acquired domiciles. The Chief 
Justice of the Cape Colony, Sir J. H. De VilHers (Blue Book, July, 1879), 
gives a very lengthy and interesting opinion upon this subject. His Honour 
holds that if negotiations had been entered into between the British 
Government and Cetywayo for the purpose of a convention defining the 
mutual rights of the parties, the equitable view would have been entitled 
to as much weight as the legal view. The arguments used by Sir Bartle 
Frere are so weighty, that if they had been addressed to a potentate who 
is capable of understanding them, and at the same time is open to reason, 
they would certainly have induced him to relinquish his private rights to 
the land, retaining only his sovereign rights. 

M 



4'i HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

Early in January, 1879, four columns crossed the 
Tugela. Tlie line of advance described a crescent, of 
which one horn rested on Luneberg, or the Pongolo, and 
the other, or base, terminated at the lower drift of the 
Tugela, close to the sea. Colonel Pearson was in command 
of the first column, whose centre was an intrenched camp 
on the summit of a bluff directly overlooking the Tugela 
river. 

It consisted of — 

Eegular infantry. — 1500, comprising eight companies of 
the Buffs under Colonel Parnell, and six companies of the 
99th under Colonel Welman. 

Koyal Engineers. — One company, with two 7-pounder 
guns, under Lieutenant Lloyd. 

Naval Brigade. — 200 blue jackets and marines, under 
Captain Campbell, from H.M.S. Active and Tencdos, with 
three Gatling guns. 

Mounted infantry. — 200 of Captain Barrow's. 

Mounted volunteers. — 200 belonging to the D'Urban 
Mounted Eifles (Captain W. Shepstone) ; Alexander 
Mounted Eifles (Captain Arbuthnot) ; Victoria Mounted 
Eifles (Captain Sauer); Stanger Mounted Eifles (Captain 
Addison); the Natal Hussars (Captain Norton). To all this 
must be added a native contingent of 2000, under Major 
Graves, and two companies of the 99th, posted at Stanger 
and D'Urban. This was the coast column. 

The second column was planted at a commanding 
position called Krantz Kop, inaccessible except on the 
Natal side. It comprised 3300 natives, with 200 European 



LORD CHELMSFOBD'S ADVANCE. 45 

officers, supported by two rocket tubes under Lieutenant 
Eussell, E.E., and 250 mounted natives. 

The head-quarters of the third cokimn was at Help- 
makaar, situated on high and open ground commanding 
an extensive prospect. The depots were at Grey Town and 
Ladysmith. This column was exceptionally strong, and con- 
sisted of seven companies of the l-24th, and eight of the 
2-24th ; six 7-pounder guns with special Kaffrarian car- 
riages ; a squadron of mounted infantry under Captain 
Browne ; the Natal Mounted Police, 150 strong ; the Natal 
Carbineers (Captain Shepstone) ; the Buffalo Border Guard 
(Captain Piobson) ; the Newcastle Mounted Pdfles (Captain 
Bradstreet) ; 2000 of the Native Contingent, 2nd Eegiment, 
under Commandant Lonsdale, and 2000 natives under 
Colonel Glyn. General Lord Chelmsford, commander- 
in-chief, accompanied the column. 

The fourth column had Utrecht as its base, and rested 
its line on the Blood river, thus covering the disputed 
Transvaal border. It comprised the 13th and 90th Eegi- 
ments, six guns. Puller's Light Horse, and a number of 
natives. It consisted of about 2000 well-seasoned, reliable 
men, exclusive of the natives, and was under the command 
of Colonel Evetyn Wood, Y.C. 

On the 10th of January, 1879, the full period expired 
for the Zulu king to meet the demands of her Majesty's 
High Commissioner. On the 11th of January No. 3 
column, under Colonel Glyn, crossed the Buffalo river 
into Zululand. Heavy rains had made the roads very bad, 
and caused the Tugela to rise so much that a barrel-raft, a 



46 HISTOBY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

pont, and a boat had to be made use of for the passage of 
the troops. No opposition whatever was made by the 
enemy. In the mean time the fourth column, under 
Colonel Wood, had been halted at Bemba's Kop, distant 
about thirty-five miles from Eorke's Drift. 

On the 11th of January, Lord Chelmsford, with the bulk 
of the mounted men of No. 3 column, met Colonel Wood 
with his ''irregulars" about twenty miles from Eorke's 
Drift, and was completely satisfied with the efficiency of the 
latter force, and attributed the satisfactory state of Wood's 
column to its commander's energy and military know- 
ledge.* 

On the 12th of January, Lord Chelmsford wrote : ''We 
have had our first fight to-day. I ordered the whole force 
out this morning to reconnoitre the road along which we 
shall eventually have to pass. In passing by the Nkudu 
hill, we noticed that some herds of cattle had been driven 
up close under the krantz where one of Sirayo's strong- 
holds was said to be. I ordered Colonel Glyn, with four 
companies l-24th, and the l-3rd Native Contingent, to 
work up under the krantz in skirmishing order. On the 
approach of this force near the krantz, fire was opened 
upon them out of the caves, and the fight commenced. It 
lasted about half an hour, and ended in our obtaining 
possession of all the caves and all the cattle. Colonel 
Degacher, who had been sent for from camp when we found 
that the krantz was occupied by the enemy, came up 

* Despatch of tlie Lieutenant-General commanding-in-cliief to the 
Secretaiy of State, 14th January, 1879. 



BURNING OF SIBAYO'S KBAAL. 47 

towards the end of the affair with half -battalion 2-24th, 
and about 400 of the 2-3rd Native Contingent. This force 
went forward to Sirayo's own kraal, which is situated under 
a very steep krantz filled with caves. The British soldiers 
and natives skirmished, or rather clambered, up the steep 
mountain- side, and entered all the caves, which were found 
empty. I ordered Sirayo's kraal to be burned, but none 
of the other huts were touched. The Native Contingent 
behaved very well, and not a native touched a woman or 
child, or killed the wounded men." * Subsequently Colonel 
Eussell, with a small detached force, was attacked by sixty 
of the enemy, but his men dismounted and succeeded in 
killing nine or ten, among whom was one of Sirayo's sons. 
This action was, in fact, the storming of the stronghold of 
one of Cetewayo's principal chiefs, and was accompanied 
by the capture of 500 cattle. Lord Chelmsford says of this 
engagement, '' I have visited two wounded Zulus who were 
in our hospital, and have seen that they are well looked 
after. Directly they are well enough I shall let them go, 
so that they may tell their friends how the British make 
war." 

Both previous to the successful and unresisted crossing 
of the Tugela, as well as subsequently, frequent rains had 
caused great discomfort to the troops, as well as immensely 
increased the difficulties of transport. The imioedimenta of 
the large force in the field w^as exceedingly great, and the 
want of knowledge of the character of the roads, or tracks, 

* Extract from semi.oflB.cial letter to the Higli Commissioner, dated 12th 
Januarj, 1879. 



48 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

and the capacity of oxen to do the work, resulted in many 
delays and difficulties. Large masses of infantry were 
moved into the enemy's country, whose entire dependence 
for supplies was placed upon heavy waggons drawn by 
numerous oxen. No system of carriers was established, 
and, with the exception of the fourth (Wood's) column, the 
movement of the troops was necessarily exceedingly slow. 
On the march eacli column was exposed to be attacked at a 
disadvantage, so enormous was the train of waggons which 
had to be guarded, and the knowledge of these facts 
evidently enabled the Zulus to perceive the best opportunity 
of striking a fatal blow. At a very early stage in the war. 
Lord Chelmsford saw the difficulties connected with the 
mode of supplies adopted, as he writes on the 16th of 
January, '' It would be impossible to keep a long line of 
road passable for a convoy of waggons, and w^ere we to 
advance far into the country it would be almost certain 
that, instead of our supplies coming to us, we should have 
to return for our supplies." 

The country into which the British troops had entered 
was one in which the mountain-sides are fmTowed by deep 
kloofs or ravines, generally covered by luxuriant vegetation. 
The euphorbia^ the cactus, the aloe, and mimosa grow in 
profusion, and the bush in many places forms a natural 
fortress, in which savages can easily lie in wait to surprise 
an enemy. It was in such native fastnesses that the Kafirs 
of the Cape Colony loved to w^ait — panther-like — either in 
war to attack the white man, or in peace to rob his flocks 
and herds. The Zulus, however, fortunately adopted 



ZULU TACTICS. 49 

tactics of a different character. Their plan was to attack 
in the open field, and, by means of bravery and over- 
whelming nmnbers, to entirely crush the enemy. It was 
thus that Chaka had conquered, and it was upon the same 
system that Cetywayo relied. 



E 



50 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

LORD CHELMSFOED'S PLANS — THE BATTLE OF ISA- 
NDHLWANA — THE HEEOIC DEFENCE OF RORKE'S DRIFT 
— PANIC IN THE COLONY — REQUEST FOR REINFORCE- 
MENTS — REPLY FROM THE QUEEN — THE MINISTRY — 
SIR BARTLE FRERE — LORD CHELMSFORD. 

It is desirable for the sake of justice that the plans of Lord 
Chelmsford in commencing the campaign should be given 
in his own words. They are contained in a memorandum 
dated 16th January, 1879, and are as follows : — 

^' The reports which I receive from officers commanding 
the several columns now operating against Cetywayo show 
clearly that at this season of the year a rapid advance into 
the heart of Zululand is absolutely impossible. 

'' The present state of the roads in Natal will be suf- 
ficient to bring home to the mind of every one what 
difficulties must stand in the way of those who are en- 
deavouring to move forward into the enemy's country, 
over tracts which have never been traversed; except by a 
very few traders' w^agons. 

"No. 3 column at Eorke's Drift cannot possibly move 



LOBD CHELMSFORD'S PLANS. 51 

forward even eight miles, until two swamps, into which our 
waggons sank up to the body, have been made passable. 

" This work will occupy us for at least four days, and 
we shall find similar obstacles in front of us, in every march 
we are anxious to make. 

" Accepting the situation, therefore, it remains for me 
to determine what modification of the plan of campaign at 
first laid down will be necessary. 

" I consider that my original idea of driving, as far as 
possible, all the Zulus forward towards the north-east part 
of their country, is still thoroughly sound. 

" "Without, therefore, attempting to push forward faster 
than our means will admit of, I propose with Nos. 1, 2, and 
3 columns to thoroughly clear or subjugate the country 
between the Buffalo and Tugela rivers and the Umhlatoosi 
river, by means of expeditions made by those columns from 
certain fixed positions. 

" No. 1 column will, as already instructed, occupy 
Etshowe. 

"Instead, however, of crossing the Umhlatoosi river to 
Mr. Samuelson's mission station (St. Paul's), it will move 
a portion of its force to Entumeni, and occupy that position 
as well as Etshowe. 

" Having established itself firmly in those two iDOsitions, 
the main object of this column will be to clear the Inka- 
ndhla bush and forest, or to induce the chiefs and headmen 
of the tribes residing or specially stationed in that part of 
the country to tender then' submission. 

"No. 3 column will first advance to a position near the 



52 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 



f 



Insandbla hill, and from there, assisted by a portion of 
No. 2 column, Avill clear the Equideni forest, or induce the 
chiefs, etc., to submit. 

'^ This work completed, the portion of No. 2 column 
under Lieutenant-Colonel Durnford will move towards the 
mission station near the Empand-leni hill, whilst No. 3 
column advances to a fresh position near the Isipezi hill, 
detaching, if necessary, part of its force to support No. 2 
column. 

'^ These combined moves will, I hope, have the effect 
of removing any dangerously large body from the Natal 
border. 

" Colonel Wood, commanding No. 4 column, has been 
informed of these intended movements, and has been 
instructed to act together independently about the head 
waters of the White Umvoloosi river. 

"When Cetywayo has either surrendered or been 
defeated, which can only take a few more days to decide, 
Colonel Wood will take up a position covering Utrecht and 
the adjacent Transvaal border, wherever he considers his 
force can be most usefully employed. He will not attempt 
to advance towards the Inhlazatze mountain until an 
advance by the other three columns across the Umhlatoosi 
river has become possible. 

" By these movements I hope to be able to clear that 
portion of Zululand which is situated south of the Umhla- 
toosi river, and behind a straight line drawn from the head 
waters of that river to the head waters of the White 
Umvoloosi river. 



THE FATAL TWENTY- SECOND OF JANUARY. 53 

'' Should ttie Swazies come down to tlie Pongolo river, 
that part of Zukiland which is behind a straight line drawn 
from the head waters of the Umvoloosi river to the junction 
of the Bevan and Pongolo rivers, will also, no doubt, be 
abandoned, and possibly as far as the Lebombo mountains. 

''I trust that this plan of campaign will meet with the 
approval of the High Commissioner. 

"From a military point of view I am convinced that 
it is the only ^Dracticable one at this time of year, and if 
successfully carried out, is capable of producing very satis- 
factory results. 

"I am equally confident that, politically, it will also 
have good results. 

"We shall occupy a large extent of Zululand, and shall 
threaten the portion which remains to the king. We shall 
completely cover the Natal border, and shall to a consider- 
able extent do the same for the Transvaal. We expect 
Cetywayo to keep his army mobilized, and it is clear his 
troops will have difficulty in finding sufficient supplies." 

On the 20th of January, 1879, the camp of the third 
column was at the Isandhlwana mountain. This force was 
under the command of Colonel Glyn, C.B., and the general 
commanding had accompanied it from the Tugela river. 
On the date just quoted, orders were given to Commandant 
Lonsdale and Major Dartnell to go out the following 
morning, and make a forward movement with a force com- 
posed of Native Contingent, Police, and Volunteers. On the 
next day (21st January), Major Dartnell sent in word that 
the enemy was near him in considerable force. Upon this 



54 HIS TOBY OF TEE ZULU WAB. 

Lord Chelmsford ordered the 2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment, 
the mounted infantry, and four guns, to be under arms at 
once, and this force left so soon as there was light enough 
to see the road. Before Lord Chelmsford left, he sent the 
following order to Lieutenant-Colonel Durnford, command- 
ing No. 2 column : — " Move up to Isandhlwana camp at 
once with all your mounted men and rocket battery. Take 
command of it. ' I am accompanying Colonel Gljn, who 
is moving off at once to attack Matyana and a Zulu force 
said to be twelve or fourteen miles off, and at present 
watched by Natal Police, Volunteers, and Natal Native Con- 
tingent. Colonel Glyn takes with him 2-24th Eegiment, 
four guns R.A., and Mounted Infantry." * Major Clery, 
senior staff officer to the third column, says — " Before 
leaving the camp I sent written instructions to Colonel 
Pulleine, 24th Regiment, to the following effect : — ' You 
will be in command of the camp during the absence of 
Colonel Glyn. Draw in ' (I speak from memory) ' your 
camp, or your line of defence,' — I am not certain which — ■ 
'while the force is out. Also draw in the line of your 
infantry outposts accordingly ; but keep your cavalry 
vedettes still far advanced.' I went to Colonel Pulleine' s 
tent just before leaving camp, to ascertain that he had got 
those instructions, and I again repeated them verbally to 
him." t Captain Alan Gardiner, of the 14th Hussars, states 
that he left the camp with Lord Chelmsford on the 22nd of 

* Lieutenant-Colonel Crealock— Statement to Court-Martial. 
t Major Clery, chief of the staflf, third column — Evidence before Court- 
Martial. 



INTENTIONS OF THE ZULUS. 55 

January, and was sent back into camp with an order from 
the general, between 10 and 11 a.m. that day. Colonel 
PuUeine was informed that the camp of the force out was 
to be struck, and sent on immediately; '^ also rations and 
forage for about seven days." This order came too late. 
At the moment of its receipt Colonel Durnford was falling 
back and begging Colonel PuUeine to send him reinforce- 
ments, and the enemy began to appear in large numbers. 

In order to make the proceedings of this fatal day more 
easily understood, it is now necessary to advert to the pro- 
ceedings of the Zulu army. This was 20,000 strong, and 
consisted of the Undi corps, the Nokenke and Umcityu 
regiments, and the Nkobamakosi and Inbonambi regiments. 
These comprised the flower of Cetywayo's troops. During 
the night of the 21st of January they were ordered to move 
in small detached bodies to a position about a mile and a 
half to the east of the camp at Isandhlwana, on a stony 
table-land, only about 1000 yards distant from the spot 
visited by Lord Chelmsford and Colonel Glyn on the 
afternoon of the 21st of January. No fires were lighted, and 
the stillness of death was preserved. The centre was 
occupied by the Undi corps, the right wing by the Nokenke 
and Umcityu, and the left by the Inbonambi and the 
Nkobamakosi regiments. The king's orders comprised a 
simple command to drive the third column back into Natal. 
But there was no intention whatever of making an attack 
upon the 22nd of January. The state of the moon was un- 
favourable, the usual medicine sprinkling had not taken 
place, nor had the war-song been chanted. What super- 



66 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

stition forbade was, however, conceded to expediency. 
When the division of the British forces was noticed, and 
their gross ignorance and carelessness observed, the Zulu 
leaders felt like Cromwell, when he exclaimed, with refer- 
ence to the Scottish army, ''The Lord has delivered them 
into our hands." 

On the morning of the 22nd of January, the momited 
Basutos sent out under the command of Colonel Durnford 
fired upon the Umcityu regiment. This was too favourable 
an opportunity to be neglected. Here was a portion only 
of the third column, with an unfortified camp, whose de- 
fenders were scattering themselves over a large space, utterly 
ignorant and careless of the fact that the overwhelming 
and concentrated Zulu force was close beside them. The 
charge of the Umcityu regiment was immediately and 
vigorously followed by that of the Nokenke, Inbonambi, 
and Nkobamikosi regiments, the Undi corps holding its 
ground. Up to this time in the day there had been no 
fighting. Early in the morning, not long after the de- 
parture of the general, a body of the Native Contingent 
had been sent out to scout, and either did not see or 
pretended not to see any enemy. About 9 a.m. Colonel 
Durnford, E.E., arrived with 250 mounted men and 250 
native infantry, who were at once divided into three bodies 
and scattered to the left east, the left front, and the rear. 
So far from a plan of concentration being adopted, the very 
opposite course was pursued. It was the force sent to the 
left east that was attacked by the Zulu army. No further 
concealment was now necessary, and messengers arrived 



THE ZULU ATTACK. 57 

informing Colonel Durnford that an enormous force was 
advancing. A consultation then took place between that 
officer and Colonel Pulleine, when some difference of 
opinion seemed to prevail. A company of the 1st Battalion, 
24th Eegiment, was then immediately moved up to a 
distance of about a mile and a half from the camp, 
where, at a neck of the Isandhlwana hill, an attempt was 
made to check the advance of the Zulu army. For a very 
short time only this manoeuvre was successful. 

The Zulu army now advanced in a steady, quiet, and 
determined manner. The Umcityu regiment formed the 
right centre, and was engaged with one company of the 
1st Battalion, 24th Kegiment, and about 200 of Colonel 
Durnford' s natives ; the left centre was composed of the 
Nokenke regiment, which was shelled by the two guns as it 
advanced. Next on the left, came the Imbonambi regiment, 
with the Nkobamakosi regiment outside of it, both making 
a turning movement and threatening the front of the 
camp, while driving before them a body of Colonel Durn- 
ford' s mounted men, supported by a patrol of volunteers.* 
The Undi corps, on seeing that the other four regiments 
had commenced the attack, concealed themselves on the 
north side of the Isandhlwana mountain, and so turned 
as to arrive at the w^estern front where the waggon road. 
crosses the neck. On the left front of the camp our in- 
fantry behaved with extreme gallantry, and succeeded in 
thrice repulsing the Nkobamakosi regiment ; but the 

* See Statement by Natives, and Statement by W. Drummond, Head- 
quarters Staff. — Blue Books. 



58 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

Inbonambi regiment coming up as a reinforcement, en- 
abled the Zulus to push forward along the south front 
of the camp and accomplish their turning movement. The 
guns were moved to the right of the Native Contingent, 
and troops lined the nullah below ; three companies of the 
l-24th remained on the left of the camp, supported by 
Durnford's mounted Basutos, who had been driven back. 
The single company of the l-24th, which had been thrown 
out a mile and a half from the camp, was retiring, fighting 
to the best of their ability, and, of course, was cut off to 
a man. 

The Zulu army was fast surrounding the camp. They 
had been held only partially in check by our fire, and 
their own was remarkably ineffective. Their overwhelming 
numbers and their extremely advantageous position filled 
them with redoubled courage. In place of advancing 
steadily and in silence, they now began to double and 
to shout exultantly to each other. The Native Contingent 
and camp-followers fled in all directions, seized by panic ; 
the Undi corps showed itself on the right rear of the camp, 
cutting off retreat to Eorke's Drift, and a hand-to-hand 
combat against overwhelming odds was imminent. Like 
the sea breaking against land, the Zulu host came on 
invincibly, with overwhelming power and strength. Then 
took place one of the most awful tragedies ever recorded 
in the page of history. With short stabbing assegais, on 
rushed the naked savages, accompanying the death groans 
of their victims with yells and shouts of triumph. No 
mercy was either expected or granted. Hundreds of men, 



THE CAMP AT ISANDHLWANA. 59 

overpowered by brute force, fell at their posts, and their fate 
was rendered more pitiable, as well as more blamable, by a 
failure in the supply of ammunition. 

From first to last, nothing could have been worse 
managed than the defence of our camp at Isandhlwana. 
Profound ignorance and rashness caused the dispersion of 
a force which, if formed in hollow square — or better still, 
laagered in accordance with the Dutch custom — would have 
defied the enemy, at least until such time as the general, 
with the rest of the third column, could have arrived. The 
lamentable spectacle was seen at Isandhlwana of brave 
soldiers sacrificed through the most glaring incompetency 
and folly. For the British infantry there was no oppor- 
tunity of escape — death at their post on the field of 
battle was inevitable ; but for the mounted men a chance 
occurred in consequence of the Nkobamakosi regiment 
neglecting to make a junction with the Undi. This was 
taken advantage of by a crowd of fugitives. In the flight 
many were killed before the Buffalo river was reached, and 
many were drowned and shot when trying to cross it. The 
Zulus, however, had themselves suffered severely. The 
Umcityu lost heavily from the fire of the single company 
of the 24th Eegiment which was sent out from camp never 
to return, the Nkobamakosi fell in heaps, and the hill 
down which the Nokenke came was covered with slain. 
As regards the British troops, our loss comprised 62 men 
of the N Battery, 5th Brigade, Koyal Artillery; 7 of the 
Eoyal Engineers, including Colonel Durnford; 405 of the 
1st Battalion, 24th Eegiment, including Lieutenant-Colonel 



60 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

Pulleine, Captains Degacher, Mostyn, Wardell, and Young- 
liusband (Lieutenant and Adjutant Melvill was killed on 
the western side of the Buffalo river, when most gallantly 
defending the colours of his regiment, which were after- 
wards found wrapped round his body) ; 165] men of the 
2nd Battalion, 24th Eegiment ; Surgeon-Major Shepherd, 
Army Medical Department ; 12 Mounted Infantry ; 26 
Natal Mounted Police ; 22 Natal Carbineers ; 7 Newcastle 
Mounted Eifles, and 3 Buffalo Borderguard ; 37 of the 1st 
Battalion, 3rd Eegiment, Natal Native Contingent ; 37 of 
the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Eegiment, Natal Native Contingent. 
Among the Carbineers and other volunteer corps were the 
sons of many of the leading inhabitants of Natal, and 
in the Police also were many relatives of colonists. 
The official lists comprising white men killed, publish more 
than 770 names ; but there is no doubt that, including the 
loyal natives, quite 1000 of our men must have been slain. 
All the baggage, guns, and ammunition became the pro- 
perty of the enemy, and in the incredibly short space of 
one hour from the beginning of the general attack, one 
of the most signal victories possible had been gained by 
the Zulu army. The number of white men who escaped 
across the Buffalo river was about forty, in addition to 
natives on horseback and foot. Of the former, about twenty- 
five or thirty arrived at Helpmakaar between 5 and 6 p.m. 
The Undi corps, believing that the cam^D had been plundered 
by the other portions of their army, thought it desirable to 
advance quickly on Eorke's Drift to secure the booty there, 
and hurried off for this destination, little dreaming of the 
possibility of any resistance. 



IGNORANCE OF LORD CIIEL3ISF0RD. 61 

While these occurrences had been takmg place, Lord 
Chelmsford, with Colonel Glyn and a large portion of the 
third column, were absent in advance. On the 20th of 
January, the general had made a reconnoissance as far as 
a place called Matyana's stronghold — a deep valley, full of 
caves. Not having time to examine this place thoroughly, 
two separate parties were ordered out to bring back a full 
description of it. One of these, under Major Dartnell, 
reported that he found the enemy in force, and would be 
able to attack if three companies of infantry were sent to 
him. This was not acceded to. At 2.30 a.m. on the 22nd 
of January, Colonel Glyn was ordered to move to Dartnell's 
assistance with six companies 2-24th, four guns, and the 
mounted infantrv. Colonel Durnford was at the same time 
ordered up to strengthen the Isandhlwana camp. The 
general followed Colonel Glyn's reinforcements, and 
reached Major Dartnell at 6.30 a.m. The enemy shortly 
showed at a distance, but retreated when a general advance 
was made. All this was, no doubt, part of the Zulu plan of 
amusing this portion of our forces, and keeping them from 
the Isandhlwana camp. The only actual engagenient that 
took place was at the extreme right, where 500 Zulus were 
cut off, of whom 30 were killed. At 9 a.m. a short note 
was received from Lieutenant-Colonel Pulleine, stating that 
firing had been heard, but giving no further particulars. 
Lieutenant Milne, A.D.C., was sent by the general to the 
top of a high hill from which the camp could be seen, and 
he remained there for at least an hour, with a very power- 
ful telescope, but could detect nothing unusual in that 



62 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

direction. A site for a new camp was then fixed upon, and 
the troops were ordered to bivouac there that night. The 
general then started to return to camp with the mounted 
infantry under Colonel Eussell. When within sis miles 
from Isandhlwana, Lord Chelmsford found the 1st Battalion, 
Native Contingent, halted, and shortly after Commandant 
Lonsdale rode^ up to report that he had ridden into camp, 
and found it in possession of the Zulus. Intimation had 
been received so far back as between 9.30 and 10 a.m.* 
that there was a force of the enemy in the close neighbour- 
hood of the camp. Major Clery at this time received a half 
sheet of foolscap from Lieutenant-Colonel PuUeine, giving 
him that information, and as the force was only twelve 
miles from camp, an immediate rapid advance would have 
saved the day. The exact words of this letter are not 
given in the evidence, and are clearly of the utmost con- 
sequence. It was after this, however, that Lieutenant 
Milne, A.D.C., descended the hill, with the report that he 
noticed nothing except the cattle being driven into camp. 
This fact, however, was of great consequence, taken in 
connection with the pressing nature of the despatch from 
Colonel Pulleine. • Notwithstanding all this, nothing was 
suspected until the dreadful news came like a thunder- 
clap, that the camp had been taken and its defenders 
killed. So soon as the general heard the awful news, 
he sent back Major Gossett, A.D.C., to order Colonel 
Glyn to advance with all his force. He was six miles 
off, and it was then 4 p.m. The advance party, with the 

* See Statement of Lieutenant -Colonel Crealock, Acting Military Secretary. 



THE DISASTER DISCOVERED. 63 

general, continued to go forward, until they were within 
two miles from the camp, when they halted. Colonel 
Kussell went to the front to reconnoitre, and returned 
about 5.45 with a report that '' all was as bad as could 
be." The Zulus held the camp. At 6 p.m. Colonel Glyn 
came up with his troops, which, having been formed into 
fighting order, were addressed by the general. No sign of 
wavering was perceptible. They advanced with steady 
courage, determined to attack and go through any enemy. 
Guns in the centre ; three companies 2-24th on each flank 
in fours ; Native Contingent ; mounted infantry on extreme 
right, Natal Mounted Volunteers on the extreme left ; 
Mounted Police in reserve ; — in this order the force went 
forward with great speed. The artillery shelled the crest 
of the narrow neck over which the line of retreat lay, and 
positions were seized without opposition. The cm^tain of 
night had fallen over the dreadful scene of carnage, and 
the entire force, tired and dispirited, lay down amidst 
the debris of the plundered camp and the corpses of men, 
horses, and oxen. The weariness and sorrow of these 
hours of darkness will never be forgotten. The troops 
fully expected to be attacked in front and rear ; but fortu- 
nately the Zulus knew better how to gain than how to 
improve a victory, and although there were several alarms, 
not a shot was fired, and Lord Chelmsford, with the 
remnant of his forces, was able at dawn of day to hurry 
on to the relief of Eorke's Drift. 

On the 22nd of January, Lieutenant Chard, K.E., was 
left in command at Eorke's Drift by Major Spalding, who 



64 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

went to Helpmakaar to Imrry on the company of the 24th 
Kegiment ordered to protect the ponts. Ahout 3.15 p.m. 
of that day, two men came riding furiously from Zululand, 
and shouted to be taken across the river. These were 
Lieutenant Adendorff, of Lonsdale's regiment, and a car- 
bineer. The former remained to assist in the defence ; 
the latter galloped off to take the intelligence to Help- 
makaar. The news was of the frightful disaster at Isa- 
ndhlwana — that the Zulus were advancing on the colony in 
force, and that Eorke's Drift must, therefore, be held at all 
cost. Lieutenant Bromhead, who commanded the company 
of the 24th Kegiment at the camp near the commissariat 
stores, had just then received a note from the third column, 
and sent for Lieutenant Chard. Preparations for defence 
were made with the utmost vigour. Separate buildings 
were connected by walls of mealie-bags and two waggons ; 
the store building and hospital were loojDholed and 
barricaded. All available materials were made use of, 
and the brave little garrison determined to repulse the 
enemy or die behind their frail entrenchments. 

At the river the ferryman, Daniells, and Sergeant Milne, 
Brd Buffs, offered to moor the pont in the middle of the 
stream, and with a few men fight from its deck ; but this 
offer was declined, and the brave fellows who made it were 
enrolled among the garrison. 

The sound of firing was heard at 4.20 p.m. Previously, 
an officer of Durnford's had been requested to send outposts 
in the direction of the enemy, and to check their advances 
as much as possible. His men, however, would not obey 



ROBKKS DRIFT. 65 

orders, and rode off, 100 in number, to Helpmakaar. 
About the same time, Captain Stephenson, with his detach- 
ment of Natal Native Contingent, left the little garrison. 
The line of defence was at once seen to be too extended for 
the small number of men that were left, and a new entrench- 
ment of biscuit-boxes had at once to be commenced. The 
wall had only been built two boxes high, when, at 4.30 p.m., 
600 Zulus were seen advancing at a run against the south 
wall. They were met by a well-sustained fire, but, not- 
withstanding their heavy loss, continued to advance within 
fifty yards. Here they encountered the additional cross-fire 
from the store and were checked. Unfortunately, however, 
some were able to take advantage of the shelter afforded by 
the cook-house ovens, etc. By far the larger number never 
stopped, but moved to the left, round the hospital, and made 
a rush at the north-west wall of mealie-bags. A desperate 
bayonet struggle took place here, which resulted in the 
repulse of the enemy with heavy loss. 

The bush in the immediate neighbourhood, which had 
not been cut down, enabled the Zulus to advance under 
cover close to the wall. A number of desperate assaults 
were made, all of which were most splendidly met and 
repulsed by the bayonet. 

A very harassing fire was encountered from the rocks, 
which caused severe loss, and about 6 p.m. obliged a 
retreat behind the entrenchment of the biscuit-boxes. 
While all this was going on, the Zulus had been attempting 
to force the hospital, and shortly afterwards set fire to its 
roof. The garrison there most gallantly defended the 



06 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAE. 

building from floor to floor, bringing out all the sick that 
could be moved. Four privates of the 24th Eegiment 
(Williams, Hook, E. Jones, and W. Jones) were the last 
men to leave, holding the doorway with the bayonet, their 
own ammunition being exhausted. 

Mealie-bags were then converted into a sort of redoubt, 
which gave a second line of fire all round. While this was 
being done, the hospital was in flames, and the enemy 
continued to make desperate attempts to fire the roof of 
the stores. Shortly before darkness came on, the gallant 
little force was completely surrounded, and, after repulsing 
several attacks, felt compelled to retire to the centre of 
then- entrenchments. The vigour of the siege continued 
until after midnight, and then it lapsed into a desultory 
fire, which was kept up all night. 

About 4 a.m. on the 23rd of January, the firing ceased, 
and at daybreak the enemy was out of sight over the hill 
to the south-west. The number of the defending force was 
exactly 104,* and that of the Zulus who attacked about 
3000. No fewer than 350 of the enemy were killed. 
Thus was the colony of Natal saved by the undaunted 
resolution of a little band of heroes whose conduct rivals 
that of the men of Thermopylae. 

At about 7 a.m. a large body of the enemy were seen 
advancing. No reinforcements had arrived from Help- 
makaar, although they had been specially sent for, and 
the ammunition was almost expended. At about 8 a.m. 
the third column providentially appeared in sight, and Lord 

* This excludes the sick, who were thirty.£ve in number. 



NATAL SAVED. 67 

Chelmsford and staif soon afterwards galloped up to 
Eorke's Drift and warmly congratulated its gallant de- 
fenders. They had by their undaunted bravery and firm 
attitude before an overwhelming force of the enemy done 
much to neutralize the effect of the disaster at Isa- 
ndhlwana, and, Lord Chelmsford himself officially reports, 
"no doubt saved Natal from a serious invasion." He udds, 
" The cool, determined courage displayed by the gallant 
garrison is beyond all praise, and will, I feel sure, receive 
ample recognition." 

The disaster at Isandhlwana, looked at correctly, con- 
firms most strongly the arguments advanced by the High 
Commissioner in favour of the war. It became perfectly 
evident that the Zulu king had an army at his command 
which could, almost any day, unexpectedly invade Natal; 
and, owing to the great extent of frontier and character 
of the natives within the colony, they might have devastated 
the country without the possibility of being adequately 
checked. To use the words of Sir Bartle Frere, it would 
have been vain — almost criminal — to ignore the fact that 
there had grown up by our sufferance alongside Naial a 
very powerful military organization, directed by an irre- 
sponsible, bloodthirsty, and treacherous despot. This 
extraordinary power simply made the existence of a 
peaceful English community so precarious as to prevent 
its safe continuance in any other form than that of an 
armed camp. So soon as the news of Isandhlwana reached 
the colony, a terrible panic was the result. The inhabitants 
fled to the towns, laagers were formed in every direction, 



68 EISTOBY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

while in D'Urban and Pietermaritzburg entrenchments and 
fortifications were at once erected. The heroic defence of 
Korke's Drift and the providential flooding of the Tugela 
river were the means of saving the colony. Flushed with 
victory, nothing would have been able to withstand the 
Zulu armies, if they had crossed the boundary and, in their 
well-organized form, entered Natal. 

As a result of the Isandhlwana disaster, the native 
allies could no longer be trusted, and melted away by 
means of desertion. Lord Chelmsford was obliged to 
report that large British reinforcements were absolutely 
required if the operations against the Zulus were to be 
carried to a successful issue. Three British infantry 
regiments, two cavalry regiments, and one company of 
Koyal Engineers, as well as 100 artillerj^men, were asked 
for. Wherr the request reached England, it was im- 
mediately granted, but a fearful period of suspense and 
anxiety intervened. It is difficult to pourtray in words the 
feelings of the white inhabitants of Natal, who every 
moment expected to hear that a savage, ruthless foe was 
in full march for the purpose of utterly exterminating the 
hated white race. Sixty miles only intervened between 
D'Urban and the Tugela river ; Pietermaritzburg was still 
more exposed. Numbers of peo^Dle fled to the seaboard, 
and thence to the neighbouring colony; while, behind 
laagers and hastily constructed fortifications, the people 
waited in expectant terror for every item of news from the 
theatre of war. In the Cape colony, the most vigorous 
measures were adopted by its Government. Two hundred 



FEELING IN ENGLAND. 69 

volunteers from Cape Town, and 100 from Port Elizabeth, 
proceeded immediately to King William's Town and relieved 
the 88th Eegiment, ordered to Natal; 900 mounted 
yeomanry were called out to occupy certain positions on 
the border, in conjunction with 800 Cape Mounted Kiilemen. 
Two thousand Europeans were thus placed under arms, 
1700 of whom were mounted men. This was really 
necessary in order to keep down possible insurrections 
of Pondos, Basutos, and Griquas. All the black races 
throughout Southern Africa had to be feared, as they only 
waited an opportunity to make common cause against the 
Europeans. Already in detail had the Gealekas and the 
Gaikas been thoroughly defeated, but the Basutos and 
Pondos had hitherto hung back. The Zulu war was 
watched by them with lively feelings of interest, and their 
sympathies were, of course, enlisted on the side of Cetywayo. 

Her Majesty the Queen, with the utmost sympathy and 
promptness, caused the Secretary of State to telegraph, 
on the 18th of February, her sorrow at the loss of so many 
brave officers and men of the regular and colonial forces, 
and her full confidence that Lord Chelmsford would be able 
to meet the difficulties in which he was placed. The 
message ended with the words, ^' Full reinforcements of 
all arms will be sent with the utmost despatch." 

The Imperial Ministry was fiercely attacked in England 
for having entered upon the Zulu war, and succumbed to 
the pressure of public opinion so far as to blame Sir Bartle 
Frere for taking, without their full knowledge and sanction, 
a course almost certain to result in war, which every 



70 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR, 

effort should have been used to avoid. The High Com- 
missioner, under his commission, was not only empowered, 
but really authorized and obliged, to enter upon this war. 
His Excellency knew that it was necessary to open the cam- 
paign at once in Zululand ; and the mild, modified rebuke 
of the Conservative Ministry was evidently wrung from 
them more by the exigencies of party than by the actual 
circumstances. A disaster always evokes a cry for victims, 
and the British populace were loud in the usual vde victus 
clamour. Sir Bartle Frere, however, stood firm, strong 
in the confidence of eventually obtaining justice ; while the 
Ministry at home were sufficiently powerful and sufficiently 
noble to refuse to sacrifice Lord Chelmsford to the ferocious 
outcry that was raised against him. 



( '1 ) 



CHAPTER V. 

PEAESON'S COLUMN" — MAECH TO EKOWE — BATTLE OF 
INYEZANE — EKOWE — ZULU AEMY — WOOD'S COLUMN 
— ZULU EAIDS — EEINFOECEMENTS FEOM ENGLAND — 
THE COLONISTS — THE NAVY. 



We have now to advert to the proceedings of No. 1 column, 
comprising 1200 British troops, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Pearson. Having crossed the Tugela 
river, an advance was commenced towards Ekowe on the 
18th of January. No fewer than 130 waggons, as well as a 
number of other vehicles, accompanied this column, whose 
order of march was as follows : — 

Cavalry. ^ 

Detacliment Eojal Engineers. 
One cart. 
Half company Natal Native Pioneers. 
One cart. 
Two companies Buffs. 
Eoyal Artillery. 
Two guns. 
Two companies Buffs. 
A and B Companies Naval Brigade, with two 
24-pounder rockets and crews. 
Company Eoyal Engineers. 



-t3 

bo 

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Pi 



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bD 

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Q 

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Pk 

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130 waggons and other vehicles. 

Three companies Native Contingent. 

Catling crew. 

Eoyal Marines. 

Two companies Buffs. 



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p to p 

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72 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

The difficulties of transport were considerable, and the 
immense train of waggons not only delayed progress, but 
made an attack, when the troops were in motion, more 
difficult to resist. Nothing of consequence occurred on the 
march, excepting the destruction of a large military kraal. 
The enemy, however, hovered about the column, and only 
waited for a favourable opportunity. 

At last, on ,the 22nd of January, the day of Isa- 
ndhlwana, the march was commenced at 5 a.m. After 
passing five miles along a fertile valley, the path turned 
suddenly to the left, and the ascent of the high land on 
which Ekowe is situated commenced. The head of the 
column reached the turning, and was preparing to halt for 
breakfast, when it was suddenly attacked along the entire 
right flank and on both fronts. The Zulus had been lying 
in ambush. Eushing from bush to bush, and firing with 
great rapidity, they advanced in extended order so as to 
come within a distance of 150 yards. Their advance was 
checked by the heavy fire from two 7-pounders, Koyal 
Artillery, and two 24-pounder Naval Brigade rockets, 
placed on a knoll at the foot of the pass commanding the 
valley from which the flank attack proceeded. Two com- 
panies of the Buffs, as well as A and B companies of the 
Naval Brigade, assisted in holding this position,'and poured 
in a steady fire. While these proceedings were going on 
under the personal direction of Colonel Pearson, the 
waggons continued to park, and as soon as the length of 
the column had sufficiently decreased, two companies of 
the Buffs, which had been guarding the waggons, were 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL PEARSONS COLUMN. 






directed to clear the enemy out of the bush. Led by Cap- 
tains Harrison and Wild, they got into skirmishing order, 
and in good style drove the Zulus back into the open plain, 
^vhere they were effectually swept by rockets, shells, and 
musketry. The main body of the mounted infantry, under 
Major Barrow and Captain Wynne, were now able to move 
forward. An attempt to outflank on the part of the enemy 
was defeated by the Naval Brigade and a part of the Native 
Contingent. Shortly afterwards, a brilliant and successful 
attack was made upon heights where a considerable body 
of Zulus were posted. The Zulus then fled in all direc- 
tions, and a complete victory was gained. 

The plan of fighting by the Zulus was in accordance 
with their usual well-organized scheme. The formation of 
their attack is in the figure of a beast, with horns, chest, 
and loins. They usually make a feint with one horn, whilst 




A. The enemy. 

BB. Horns of Zulu army. 



C. Chest of Zulu army. 

D. Loins of Zulu army. 



the other, concealed by long grass or bush, sweeps round 
for the purpose of encompassing its enemy. The chest 



74: HIS TOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

then advances, and endeavours by its vast power to crush 
opposition. The loins are kept at a distance and only join 
in pursuit. 

The action of Inyezani lasted exactly one hour and a 
half, commencing at 8 a.m. and the last shot being fired at 
9.30 a.m. The British loss was 12 killed and 16 wounded, 
while of the Zulus 300 were slain. It is conjectured that 
the attacking force comprised nearly 5000 men. 

After the battle was over the column calmly resumed 
the even tenor of its way, and at night bivouacked on a 
high ridge distant only three miles from the battle-field. 
The road led up a winding and steep ascent, and on the 
23rd of Januar}^, after marching six miles further, Ekowe 
was reached. The intention was to leave surplus stores 
here, with a small garrison, and push on to Cetywayo's 
kraal at Ulundi. But these plans had to be completely 
changed. On the 29th of January, about noon, a mes- 
senger galloped in from Lord Chelmsford with the news 
of the fearful disaster at Isandhlaw^ana, and that the entire 
Zulu army might be expected to attack them. Colonel 
Pearson had to decide either to hold the fort, or to march 
back, at once and quickly, to the Tugela river. A council 
of war was assembled, and, by a small majority, it was 
resolved to maintain their position at all costs. The result 
proved that this was a wise determination. 

In order to husband resources, all the cavalry, with the 
two battalions of Native Contingent, were sent back, and by 
this means the garrison lost all means of obtaining inform- 
ation of the enemy's movements. The Victoria, Stanger, 



THE CAMP AT EKOWE. 75 

and D'Urban Mounted Eifles, as well as the Natal Hussars, 
and two battalions of the Natal Native Contingent, rode 
away at 2 p.m. of the day on which the order was given, 
and at midnight arrived safely on the banks of the Tugela, 
not having seen a Zulu on the way. Colonel Ely, en route 
with supplies, was directed to hasten on to Ekowe, and, in 
order to do so more effectually, abandoned eight waggons, 
with their contents of flour, biscuit, limejuice, sugar, etc. 
On the 30th of January, all the troops came inside the 
embryo fort; tents were no longer allowed, and officers 
and men were obliged to huddle together under waggons. 
The garrison consisted of 1339 whites and 355 blacks, 
of whom 47 whites and 290 blacks were non-combatants. 
The armament comprised 1200 Martini rifles, with 330 
rounds per rifle ; 1 Gatling, with 127,000 rounds ; 2 rocket 
tubes, with 83 rockets ; and 2 7-pounders, with 500 rounds. 
The garrison had 3000 oxen, but were obliged to drive 
away a large number, and soon learned, by the loss of 90 
slaughter oxen from the ditch of the parapet, that large 
numbers of Zulus were close at hand. The fort soon 
attained a respectable appearance. It was oblong in shape 
— east and west sides, 300 yards each; north side, 120 
yards ; south, 180 yards. Waggons were placed round the 
inside of the parapet, a few yards distant. The church was 
conveii;ed into a hospital, the schoolroom and parsonage 
into storerooms, and all other buildings were demolished. 
All hands were up at reveille, and engaged all day in 
making the fort, and, when that was completed, in making 
roads. At 8 p.m. the ''last post" sounded, and then all 



76 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

gave themselves to sleep, often broken by the alarm of the 
church bell, when the paraj)ets were manned at once. A 
few irregular horse had been enrolled, who did outpost 
duty during the day. At this time an army of 20,000 
Zulus was lying in wait between Ekowe and the Tugela. 

Lord Chelmsford desked Colonel Pearson to reduce his 
garrison, and to establish a portion of it at the Tugela 
forts ; but this was clearly impossible, and it is very sur- 
prising that such an order could ever have been issued. 
On the 6th of February, Colonel Pearson wrote, suggesting 
that twenty waggons, with a convoy, should be sent. In 
reply, the general sent word that there would not be a 
force at Lower Tugela for six weeks sufficient to insure a 
convoy to Ekowe, but wished the garrison there reduced 
and a flying column formed. This was quite out of the 
question, and, of com^se, was not attempted. On the lOtli 
of February the fort was completed, with ditches seven feet 
deep and twelve feet wide, flanked by caponnieres or by 
the parapet itself ; wire entanglements on the glacis, and 
stakes in the ditch. The two 7-pounders were at the 
south-east and south-west angles, the rocket battery at the 
north-west, and the Gatling on the east face of the parapet. 

The stench, at night particularly, was absolutely sick- 
ening, although every effort was made to keep the camp 
clean. Kations soon had to be reduced. A bottle of pickles 
fetched 25s. ; sardines, 12s. ; tin of milk, 23s. ; a ham, £7 
lOs. There was always, however, a sufficient quantity of 
food of a coarse description, and the only famine that the 
garrison really suffered from was a dearth of news. Intel- 



LIFE AT THE CAMP. 77 

ligence of how the war was going on, and of the outside 
world, was greedily and earnestly thirsted for. Convoys 
were always looked for and never arrived. No attack was 
ever made upon the fort by the wily Zulus, although they 
lay in wait for any opportunity. 

The defence of Korke's Drift had not only saved Natal 
from destruction, but Ekowe from attack. Affairs dragged 
on in a dull, monotonous manner all through February 
until the beginning of March. From a slight elevation 
near the camp the Lower Tugela could be seen, and H.M.S. 
Active cruising on the coast. Many a time were eyes 
stretched over the thirty-five miles of country intervening 
between Ekowe and Natal for some sign of relief and of 
succour. 

An officer in Ekowe says, '^ The troops inside consisted 
of three companies of the 99th Eegiment, five companies 
of the 2-3rd Buffs, one company Koyal Engineers, one 
company of the Pioneers, the Naval Brigade, a body of 
artillery, and nineteen of the Native Contingent, amongst 
them being several non-commissioned officers, whom we 
found exceedingly useful, two of them being at once selected 
as butchers, whilst two others w^ere * promoted ' to the 
rank of 'bakers to the troops.' Others attended to the 
sanitary arrangements of the garrison, and altogether they 
were found to be also exceedingly useful. As a portion of 
the column the company of pioneers under the command 
of Captain Beddoes did a great deal of very important 
work. This company was composed of ninety-eight natives, 
one captain, and three lieutenants, and their proceedings 



78 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

in connection with the making of the new road were watched 
with much interest. They worked with the Naval Brigade, 
about three companies of soldiers, and several men of the 
Eoyal Artillery. This road was found useless in conse- 
quence of the numerous swampy places at the foot of each 
of the numerous hills which occurred along the route. 
Very thick bush had to be cut through, and at first but 
slow progress was made. The road, as is generally known, 
took a direction towards the Inyezane. Whilst out on one 
occasion, the road party saw a torpedo explosion, which 
took place about three miles from where the party was 
working. It had been accidentally fired by Kafirs, who 
were unaware of the dangers connected with the implement, 
and it is believed that several of them were killed. The 
road was altogether a bad one. The relief column used it 
on their way up, but only the pioneers and the mounted 
men went by that route on the way back. In fact, it would 
have been useless to have attempted to use it for the 
passage of waggons. Whenever the road party went out 
they were fired on by Kafirs, but of course shots were 
returned, and many a Zulu warrior was knocked over 
whilst the work was being proceeded with. Everything in 
camp was conducted in a most orderly manner. We were 
roused at half-past five, sharp, and at eight o'clock, sharp, 
lights were out. For one month we existed very comfort- 
ably on full rations, but at the end of that time we were 
put on short rations, made up as follow : — One pound and 
a quarter of trek oxen beef, six ounces of meal, one ounce 
and a quarter of sugar, third of an ounce of coffee, one- 



MOVEMENTS OF CETEWATO. 79 

sixth of an ounce of tea, one-ninth of an ounce of pepper, 
and a quarter of an ounce of salt. Life of course was very 
monotonous. The bands of the two regiments played on 
alternate afternoons, and every morning they were to be 
heard practising outside the entrenchment. The most 
pleasant part of the day was just after six o'clock, when we 
used to be enlivened in the cool of the evening by the fife and 
drum band, playing the ' retreat.' The water with which 
we were supplied was indeed excellent, and the bathing 
places, I need not say, were very extensively patronized. 
The grazing was not nearly sufficient for the cattle, and 
from the first they must have suffered very much from 
want of nourishment. You will have heard of the fate 
of the 1100 head of oxen and the span of donkeys which we 
sent away from the camp in expectation of their reaching 
the Lower Tugela. They left us in charge of nineteen 
Kafirs ; but at the Inyezane they were attacked by a large 
body of Kafirs. The natives in charge of the cattle de- 
camped and reached the fort in safety, and the enemy got 
possession of the whole of the cattle, which they drove off. 
The donkeys were all killed, with the exception of one, and 
this sagacious animal surprised everybody in camp by 
returning soon after the Kafirs had come back." 

Shortly after the disaster at Isandhlwana, the main 
body of the Zulu army went up to the king to be doctored 
with charms taken from the mutilated bodies of the killed 
of the English army. The intended movements of Cety- 
wayo were described as follows : — " When the doctoring is 
done, the king will order a still stronger force than that of 



80 HISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

22ncl January ; i^erliaps 20,000 or 30,000 to attack in one 
mass Colonel Glynn's column, and if they succeed, then 
attack Colonel Wood's column ; but if they do not succeed 
in doing this, he will try to check and harass the English 
columns in Zululand by manoeuvring a sufficient number 
of soldiers around them, and simultaneously make strong 
impetuous raids into the colony, as he has prohibited his 
people making raids in small numbers ; he has furthermore 
plainly and repeatedly expressed himself to the effect that 
if he is to lose his life and kingdom, he will first make such 
havoc in Natal that it for ever shall be remembered." The 
truth is that something little short of a universal panic 
prevailed, which only by degrees subsided as time passed on 
without any invasion, and leism-e was allowed for reflection. 
It does not seem to have been remembered that in every 
direction except one, and by all the columns except that of 
Colonel Glyn, the Zulus were defeated. Isandhlwana was 
a purely exceptional case, entirely attributable to blunder- 
ing of the most gross and evident character. The defence 
of Eorke's Drift and the battle of Ineyezani were most signifi- 
cant. At the former a handful of infantry defended them- 
selves successfully behind mealie-bags and biscuit-boxes 
against three times their number ; at the latter, an over- 
whelming force was easily defeated in the field by the 
simple strategy of common sense. 

No. 4 column, under Colonel "Wood, operated in the 
north and acted as a means of defence to Utrecht and the 
Transvaal. It was assisted from the first by a number of 
irregulars and volunteers. Successful forays were made 



DISCONTENT AMONG TEE BOERS. 81 

on various occasions, but it would be tedious to do more 
than refer to these, although the greatest gallantry and 
skill were exhibited. Colonel "Wood most deservedly in- 
creased his reputation as a brilliant and successful leader. 
A fort was established at Kambula hill, entrenched in such 
a manner as to defy the attacks of a savage enemy. 

February was a month of suspense. Cetywayo had an 
opportunity of which he did not avail himself, but was 
contented ^dth reorganizing and reanointing his armies. 
Colonel Pearson remained at Ekowe ; forts were placed 
on the Tugela river ; mounted forces were distributed along 
the border from Fort Pearson to Thring's Post. There 
was, in addition, a border guard of white officers and natives, 
about 1500 strong. " St anger " — fifteen miles on the Natal 
side — as well as D'Urban, Maritzburg, and every town of 
the least consequence, was fortified, and then volunteer and 
citizen soldiers prepared themselves for any emergency. 
The High Commissioner, Sh' Bartle Frere, who had pro- 
ceeded to Natal on the outbreak of hostilities, still remained 
at Pietermaritzburg, and was there in the best possible 
position for giving that advice and assistance so necessary 
in the serious emergencies in which a British colony and a 
British general were placed. Unfortunately, many of the 
people of Dutch extraction in the Transvaal seemed to take 
the opportunity for loudly protesting against the annexa- 
tion of that territory to the Crown, then recently effected 
by Sir Theophilus Shepstone. A people's committee was 
appointed, and a firm determination expressed to regain 
that republican liberty of which they believed they had 

G 



82 IIISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

been unjustly deprived. One of the most satisfactory 
events of this month was the evident desire of the king's 
brother, Oham, to be regarded as our friend. His country 
lay in the north-west of Zululand, and at an interview held 
with Colonel Wood, conditions of surrender were arranged. 
Early in March he came in with more than 600 people. 

Under the orders and with the connivance of Cetywayo, 
the chiefs Umbellini and Manyanyoba perpetrated the 
most horrid cruelties. Atrocious outrages had been com- 
mitted long previously, but the Transvaal republican 
authorities had not apparently considered it expedient to 
report them fully. The little town of Luneberg was un- 
doubtedly saved by a company of troops sent there by 
Colonel Wood. This officer had it in his power, when 
passing through Manyanyoba's country, to crush him and 
his warriors, but accepted in good faith the statement of 
that chief, professing a desire to come under the British 
Government. In spite of this, on the 10th of February, 
a Zulu war party, led by Umbellini, crossed the Pongolo, 
and was joined on the north by a strong force of 
Manyanyoba's people, led by Manyanyoba himself.* The 
combined force consisted of 1500 men. At half-past 3 a.m. 
of the 11th February, they reached the mission station of 
the Eev. Mr. Wagner, only four miles from Luneberg, and 
then commenced a scene of most atrocious murder. Men, 
women, and children were massacred. The houses of the 
Christian natives were given to the flames, and no fewer 
than seven children were burnt alive. From Wagner's they 

* See report from Colonel Schermbrucker to Colonel Evelyn Wood. — 
Parliamentary Blue Book. 



LIFE AT HELFMAKAAB. 83 

went to Nomapela's kraal, where they killed two men, 
eleven women, and fifteen children. Thence they pro- 
ceeded to Luhlanya's kraal, where they murdered one 
man, two women, and two children. But it is unnecessary 
to prolong the narrative ; suffice it to say that they went 
through the country with fire and sword, sparing neither 
age nor sex, and plundering wherever they had an opportu- 
nity. Bodies of women and children were found frightfully 
mutilated, and at Mr. Wagner's house a woman was found 
still alive, who bore thirty-seven assegai wounds on her body. 
The movements of the main Zulu army were mysterious. 
One day scouts arrived with the information that the 
enemy was in force between the Tugela and Ekowe; 
another day information was received that there was an 
army beyond the later place. The plan adopted on our 
side was simply to entrench and wait. A dull, monotonous 
round of garrison duty had to be performed at a number 
of posts, while the danger was so great and imminent as 
to turn every citizen into a soldier, and every town into a 
barrack. As a specimen of life at a fort, we quote from a 
correspondent who writes in February from ^' Helpmakaar : " 
" Here we are, foot artillery, police, and contingent, about 
500 strong, living in tents during the day and going into 
the fort at night. With the exception of a stink of rotten 
mealies and the rain continually swelling through and 
through, the fort is not so bad, being so strong and well 
built that the men here now could hold it against the whole 
of the Zulu army. It is not healthy. Hospital leaks. 
What with guards, vedettes, etc., the duties are very heavy.'' 



84 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

What was said at Helpmakaar miglat have been said with 
very httle variation at every other fort. The most active 
operations were carried on from Colonel Wood's column, 
whose head-quarters were entrenched at Kambula. Among 
its brilliant exploits was the capture, on the 20th February, 
of the almost inaccessible Makkatees mountain. One of the 
captured natives said that our troops had not come a day 
too soon, as Cetywayo had promised to send reinforcements. 
The first ship to arrive with reinforcements was H.M.S. 
Shah, which anchored at Port Natal on Thursday, the 6th 
of March. The troops available by her were 392 men of 
the Naval Brigade and 200 men from the St. Helena 
garrison.* Baker and Lonsdale's Light Horse, as well as 
other irregulars, were recruited in the Cape Colony, and 
sent on by degrees. The first steamer from England to 
arrive with reinforcements was the Pretoria, of the Union 
Boyal Hail Steam Shipping Company's fleet. She made 
the run to Natal in less than twenty-four days, and had 
on board 34 officers, 7 staff officers, and 890 men of the 
71st Highlanders. The British soldiers were received in 
Natal with the utmost enthusiasm, as saviours of the 
country. Each ship and each regiment was eagerly looked 
for and gladly welcomed. Previous to the Pretoria, the 
57th Begiment had arrived from Ceylon in H.M. troopship 
Tamar. The Secretary of War telegraphed, on the 13th 
of February, to Lord Chelmsford that the following rein- 

* The excellent conduct of Governor Janisch, of St. Helena, in despatching 
troops in H.M.S. Shah to Natal so soon as he received intelligence of the 
Isandhlwana disaster, forms the subject of a special despatch of thanks and 
appreciation from the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 



ABRIVAL OF BEINFOROEMENTS. 



85 



forcements had been placed under immediate orders for 
Natal: — Two regiments of cavalry, each 648 men and 
480 horses ; two field batteries of artillery, 336 men and 
220 horses ; one field company of Engineers ; -five regiments 
of infantry from home, each 806 men ; 57th Eegiment from 
Ceylon; three companies Army Eeserve Corps, 140 men, 
380 horses ; Army Hospital Corps, 140 ; drafts for the 
57th, the 24th, and Koyal Artillery. The steamers em- 
ployed to bring out these troops were — 

Troops conveyed. 
91st Highlanders 
200 men 60fch Rifles 
3rd Battalion, Eifle Brigade 
I7tli Lancers and horses 
Ditto 

1st Dragoon Guards and horses 
Ditto 

Military stores and field tele- 
graph 
58th Regiment 
94th Regiment 
Royal Artillery 
Royal Engineers 
M Battery, 6th Brigade, Royal 

Horse Artillery 
21st Regiment 

Army Service and Hospital Coi"ps 
Drafts of 24th Regiment. 
Wrecked off Cape Coast, 
brought in by Tamar 
Army Service Corps and horses 
Reserve ammunition column 

Stapp op the Troops. 

Maj or. General Marshall ; 1 brigade major j 1 A.D.C. 
Major-General Crealock. Ditto. 

Major-General Newdigate. Ditto. 





Line. 


The Pretoria 


Union S.S. Co. 


Danube ... 


Ditto 


Dublin Castle ... 


D. Currie & Co. 


England 


National S.S. Co. ... 


France ... 


Ditto 


Egypt 


Ditto 


Spain 


Ditto 


Loando ... 


British and African 




S.S. Co 


Russia ... 


Cunard Line 


China 


Ditto 


Olympus 


Ditto 


Palmyra 


Ditto 


Manora 


McNeil Denny 


City of Paris* ... 


Inman Company 


City of Venice 


Smith & Sons 


Clyde 


Temperley's 


Queen Margaret 


Queen Line 


Andean 


East India and Pacific 



* The City of Paris touched the Roman Rock, in Simon's Bay ; the Tamar 
had to take on her troops. 



4 



8G HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAIL 

These magnificent steamships used the utmost despatch, 
and in little more than twenty days * from England each 
one arrived at the Cape of Good Hope. The voyage thence 
to Natal only occupies three days. Immense enthusiasm 
prevailed as each noble steamer and well-known regiment 
arrived. The landing at D' Urban was performed in the 
most expeditious manner, and without the slightest acci- 
dent. In the midst of all these arrivals and the excitement 
connected with them, apprehensions of Zulu inroads were 
at an end ; but it was felt that the retrieval of the disaster 
at Isandhlwana would be a serious work, and that energy 
and ability were requisite to bring the war to a speedy and 
satisfactory termination. The 12th of March was observed 
throughout the colony of Natal as a day of humiliation, 
and in every church prayers were offered up to the God 
of battles, that He would bless our arms. The people of 
Natal had, in proportion to their numbers, sent out a con- 
siderable force across the Tugela. There w^as mourning 
in many families for sons, brothers, husbands, slain at 
Isandhlwana; and the losses caused to sugar estates and 
other interests by the war were neither small nor unim- 
portant. The war w^as entirely an imperial act — levied by 
the High Commissioner, and carried on in Zululand for 
the protection of the Transvaal and of British South Africa 
generally, as well as of Natal. 

"When transport prices increased in accordance with the 
inexorable laws of supply and demand, immense sums were 

* The Manora made the passage to Simon's Bay in 19 days, 23 hours. 
Her average speed -was 13"5 miles per hour. 



TEE COLONISTS MALIGNED. 87 

obtained by waggoners as well as by owners of oxen and 
waggons. Other classes also greatly benefited by the large 
military expenditure. It stands to reason that very large 
sums of money spent in South Africa must have permeated 
through all classes of the community. At the same time, 
it is incorrect to charge the people with special greed and 
rapacity. They have been libelled by more than one 
person; and with reference to various charges, the Eev. 
Mr. de Witt, at an early stage of the war, publicly stated in 
London that the people of Natal treated the Zulus worse 
than dogs, while, at a subsequent period, Mr. Archibald 
Forbes, correspondent of the Daily Neivs, maligned them 
in the most insulting manner. It is so well known as to be 
beyond question that the Zulus are extremely well-treated 
— too well-treated frequently — by the colonists; and to 
those conversant with the subject, the missionary's state- 
ment at once is seen in its true light, as a mere attempt 
to obtain a little popularity by joining the usual successful 
outcry against the oppression of coloured races by the 
** cruel white men," so constantly echoed by people who 
have never lived among blacks, and are perfectly ignorant 
of the facts of the case. Philanthropy obtained at this 
price, and by means of calumnies against our feUow- 
countrymen at a distance and in a most trying position 
of danger, cannot be estimated at a high price. Mr. Forbes 
was so very short a time in Natal as to be perfectly in- 
competent to judge of the entire character of the people. 
His sweeping condemnations must be attributed to bad 
temper, occasioned by petty inconveniences or rudeness; 



88 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

but it is a jDity that a man of his eminence and abilit}^ 
should permit such considerations to affect his judgment 
or guide his pen. The fact is that the people of the 
colonies, and of Natal very especially, are, in proportion 
to their number, quite superior to the people of Europe. 
There is more education and more intelligence ; conse- 
quently, quite as much honesty. Let any man who is 
really qualified to speak by a real knowledge of the colonies 
say whether or not this is the truth. Of course, it must 
be admitted that there is a greater spirit of independence 
and more freedom, with less conventionality ; but this is 
merely a sequence of the circumstances in which colonists 
are necessarily placed. 

Intelligent and influential public writers in England 
have gone so far as to assert that " it would not be safe 
to rely on the energetic co-operation of the Cape." His 
Excellency the Governor and High Commissioner thus 
disposes of this subject : — '' I fear that possibly, in the 
press of work, I may have omitted to do justice to the 
patriotic and energetic spirit shown by the Cape ministry, 
who in this respect represent, I believe, very faithfully the 
feeling of the colony generally. 

''The Cape Government, indeed, appears to me to have 
done all and much more than could have been expected 
from it. It has spared a regiment and a half of her 
Majesty's forces, taken its own recently subdued rebellious 
districts entirely under its own charge, and is sending to 
Natal very useful contingents of volunteers, native levies, 
waggon drivers, supplies of arms, and means of transport 
in mules, horses, etc. 



PUBLIC SPIRIT AT THE CAPE. 89 

"The tone and spirit generally shown by the Cape 
Government and people will naturally be compared with 
that shown by the sister colony of Natal, whose interests 
are so much greater ; and without any reflection on Natal, 
the population of which has risen to the occasion, the com- 
parison will be by no means unfavourable to the Cape. 

*'It must not be forgotten that the nearer we approach 
the seat of war, actual or threatened, the greater will be 
the natural disinclination of colonists to volunteer for any 
but home service, and to leave their houses defenceless. 
This is, I feel sure, the principal reason of any disinclina- 
tion to encourage volunteering for service in Zululand ; and 
the threatened disturbance in Basutoland will naturally 
disincline the Cape colonists to weaken too far their own 
means of defence." 

The services of the navy dm-ing the entire war were 
of the utmost value. In a despatch dated the 15th of 
February, the High Commissioner brings specially to the 
notice of her Majesty's Government the excellent service 
performed by the naval brigades landed from 'K.'^L'^. Active 
and Tenedos by Admiral Sullivan, and subsequently from 
the Boadicea. These men, in arduous and i^rolonged 
military operations, earned most thoroughly the title of 
"bravest of the brave." No sailor ever turned his back 
on an enemy during the war, and it was with difficulty 
that their impetuous heroism could be checked. The Active 
men helped to win the battle of Ineyezane, and were with 
Colonel Pearson at Ekowe ; Fort Tenedos was manned by 
the men of the ship of that name. This important fort 



90 JIISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

commanded the crossing of the Tugela river near its mouth. 
Men-of-war cruising on the coast produced an excellent 
effect, but it is the services of the gallant " blue jackets " in 
the field which are specially deserving of eulogium. 

So soon as the news of the Isandhlwana disaster had 
been received at St. Helena, Governor Janisch obtained the 
consent of the military and naval authorities to send off at 
once every available man to Natal. This was done with 
promptitude. And the first real ray of sunshine from home 
reached our troops in Zululand when they heard that 650 
gallant men in H.M.S. Shah, Captain Bradshaw, had 
arrived in Natal to assist them. 



C 91 ) 



CHAPTEK VI. 

THE ZLOBANE MOUNTAIN — PIET UYS — THE BATTLE 
OF KAMBULA — THE INTOMBE DISASTER — BATTLE OF 
GHINGHELOYO — RELIEF OF EKOWE. 

It is now necessary to refer to the operations of Colonel 
Wood's column. 

On the 27th of March a force started from the Kambula 
camp to attack the Zlohane mountain, consisting of de- 
tachments of the Frontier Light Horse, Eaaff's Corps, 
Weatherley's Eangers, Baker's Horse, Major Tremlett 
with rocket tube, and the burgher force. The number of 
horsemen was 400, and in addition a large body of the 
Native Contingent was sent, under Major Leet, l-13th, and 
Lieutenant Williams, 58th Eegiment. Another column 
was despatched, consisting of mounted infantry, Kaffrarian 
Mounted Eifles, and Wood's Irregulars, under Commandant 
Schermbruckero Colonel Wood, chief in command, and 
staff followed. We will go with the first column under 
Colonel BuUer, which halted at noon on the south side of 
the Zinquin neck. Colonel Weatherley, with his troopers, 
arrived half an hom^ afterwards. As the column passed 
the south side of the Zlobane mountain, two shots were 



92 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

fired from an elei^hant gun, and three fires were instanta- 
neously lit on a shelf of rock near the summit. Com- 
mandant Uys, a brave Dutch burgher, who had already 
frequently distinguished himself in the war, acted as guide, 
and the march onward took iDlace in perfect silence. 
Moving forward in the stillness of death, the east side of the 
mountain was reached. As the time of action approached, 
the front post of danger and of honour was taken by Com- 
mandant Uys, Colonel BuUer, Majors Leet and Tremlett. 
When 500 yards from the top, the enemy opened a furious 
fire, in which Lieutenant Williams was killed; but our 
gallant fellows pressed on without faltering for an instant, 
and gained the top of the mountain, although the ascent 
was extremely steep and trying. The fight continued at 
this point for another hour, and during the entire time the 
British force was exposed to a most galling fire from Zulus 
stationed behind rocks and in caves. When Colonel 
Wood was within 100 feet from the summit, Mr. Lloyd, 
his interpreter, fell mortally wounded, and his own horse 
was shot under him. Colonel Weatherley was desired to 
dislodge one or two Zulus who w^ere causing most of the 
loss ; but as his men did not advance rapidly. Captain 
Campbell, Lieutenant Lysons, and three men of the 90th, 
jumping over a low wall, ran forward and charged into a 
cave, where Captain (the Hon. E.) Campbell, leading in 
the most gallant and determined manner, was shot dead. 
Lieutenant Lysons and Private Fowler followed closely 
on his footsteps, and one of them, for each shot fired, 
killed one Zulu and dislodged another, who crawled away 



THE ZLOBANE MOUNTAIN, 93 

by a subterraneous passage, reappearing higher up the 
mountain. 

After silencing the fire of the Zulus at the top of the 
Zlobane mountain, Colonel BuUer and Commandant 
Eaaff rode to the westward end, where the track divides it. 
The Zulus had fortified the pass with stone walls, and from 
this position were annoying the rear of the attacking force. 
In the mean time parties of Eaaff's and Baker's Horse, and 
the burgher force, kept up a hot fire on the enemy lurking 
under the krantzes on the north-west side, where the 
Zulu troops had built huts for encampment. After having 
been four or five hours on the summit. Colonel Buller, 
with Commandments Uys and Eaaff, were returning from 
silencing the enemy's fire at the pass, when they noticed 
the arrival of a body of Zulus on the northern extremity 
of the mountain. Colonel Buller rode off to attack them, 
but before he could get half-way, he saw that troops of 
natives were climbing every available baboon-path, with 
the obiect of cuttinpj off the retreat of our men from the 
only two passes by which it was possible to descend. At 
the same time, two great columns of the enemy were seen 
approaching along the top of the mountain to the east- 
ward, and another dense mass of men advancing from the 
southward. Colonel Buller then gave the order to ride for 
the pass over the krantz at the neck, which was the only 
exit left open. Then ensued a scene which almost defies 
description. Down a descent fearfully steep and covered 
with boulders horses were ridden at full speed. Many who 
lost their steeds were saved on the cruppers of their 



94 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

comrades. At tlie foot, Colonel Buller, with other officers, 
did everything possible to rally sufficient men to cover the 
retreat of those still descending, but every effort was in 
vain. The retreat became a flight, and that even de- 
generated into a species of stampede, panic guiding the 
actions of the fugitives. It was when endeavoming to 
descend the mountain that the brave Commandant Uys 
was killed. He ' had already reached such a forward posi- 
tion as to be comparatively free from danger, when he 
learned that one of his sons was behind, and might probably 
fall into the enemy's hands. He returned immediately, but 
only to die. A ring of savages closed around him. True 
to the traditions of his race, he fought bravely to the last, 
and only succumbed to overwhelming force. He fell, 
stabbed to death by numerous assegais. The family of 
Piet Uys was celebrated in Kafir wars. He was born in 
the Humansdorp district of the Cape Colony, and his 
family left that neighbourhood for Natal in 1837. Both 
his father and brother were killed fighting against Dingaan, 
and he himself, determining to avenge their death, was 
among the first to offer his services. In one of his letters 
he writes, '' I fight in a good faith and a righteous cause. I 
must avenge the death of my father and brother, although 
in doing so I am almost sure to lose my life ; yet I cannot 
restrain myself when I remember how they were slain." 

A similar fate was reserved for the gallant Colonel 
Weatherley. This officer, with his Eangers, delayed starting 
in retreat, and lost his way. Nearly every man of his force 
was cut off, while their brave leader, holding his son — a 



DEATH OF UYS AND WEATHERLEY. 95 

boy of fourteen — to his breast, fought manfully, until he 
fell pierced with numerous wounds. 

Thus perished two of the most gallant officers who 
served in the war — one of Dutch extraction, the other 
an Englishman. The services of Commandant Uys were 
of such great value, in consequence of his bravery and 
thorough knowledge of the country, as to receive special 
recognition, and no more gallant officer fought under the 
British flag than poor Weatherley, of the Transvaal Eangers. 

Among those killed at the Zlobane was a man named 
Calverley, whose antecedents were of a very peculiar and 
somewhat suspicious character. He had come as am- 
bassador from Oham, the brother of Cetywayo, by whom 
he was evidently completely trusted. Shuffling and vacil- 
lation characterized the negotiations, and it was noticed 
in camp that Calverley rode the horse on which Lieutenant 
Coghill was killed at Isandhlwana. He likewise possessed 
property known to have been lost in that disaster. But for 
strict military discipline, Calverley would undoubtedly have 
been killed by our soldiers, and even after Oham came 
over he was still treated with suspicion. On this day, 
however, he expiated any faults he may have committed by 
his blood, and died fighting in the British ranks against 
the enemies of Oham and of England. 

Colonel Wood was riding slowly under the Zlobane 
mountain to the westward, perfectly unconscious of the 
existence of a large Zulu force moving on the left across 
his front. When about half-way, at the centre of the 
mountain, one of the natives, named Umtanga, explained 



96 HIS TOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

by signs that a large Zulu army was close upon them. 
From an adjacent hill they perceived that a great host was 
marching towards them, disposed in five columns, with 
horns and the usual dense *' chest," in accordance with the 
rule of formation for attack. An order was sent to Colonel 
Eussell, who was then ascending the western end of the 
range, to move eastward and cover the movement of our 
natives to the - camp. At 7 p.m. Colonel Wood reached 
camp. Intelligence came in that Captain Barton's party 
were on foot about ten miles distant, and Colonel Buller at 
once started in heavy rain, and was able by means of led 
horses to bring in seven men, who were the sole survivors 
of the Border Horse and of Captain Barton's party. Thus 
terminated this disastrous affair, in which our loss amounted 
to about 120 men, and in which the enemy gained additional 
courage for the great attack on the camp so shortly to 
follow. 

Captain D'Arcy, of Irregular Horse, thus briefly and 
forcibly sums up his experience of Zlobane : — " Now to 
give you a short account. Three hundred and fifty of the 
mounted men had to take a very strong position, a hill 
called the Zlobane. We got up there, driving the natives 
back at every point, although they fought very well. 
Williams was killed as we charged up the hill, the baron 
on the top when he was in command of his troop ; a Zulu 
spotted him from a hole, right through his head. Barton 
was sent down a hill with some of C Troop, and just as we 
got down we saw about 20,000 Zulus below us, trying to 
get between us and the camp. We at once crossed the hill 



CAPTAIN D'ABCTS ESCAPE, 97 

to come down a most fearfully steep place ; the Dutchmen 
got to the place, rushed down, and bolted as hard as they 
could go. My troop was leading, and Blaine, myself, and 
Hutton got them to go quietly down the hill, which w^as 
really a fearful place. I had, of course, to stop on the top 
of the hill, as we were retreating ; the Zulus all this time 
w^ere giving us awful pepper from Martini rifles. I saw, I 
thought, all our men down, and then considered I had to 
think of myself. I got half-way down, when a stone about 
the size of a small piano came bounding down. I heard a 
shout above, ' Look out below,' and down the beastly thing 
came right on my horse's leg, cutting it right off. I at the 
same time got knocked down the hill by another horse, and 
was nearly squeezed to death. I had taken the bridle off, 
and was about to take the saddle (I mean I was going up 
the hill to take it off my horse), when I heard a scream ; 
I looked up, and saw the Zulus right in among the white 
men, stabbing horses and men. I made a jump for it, and 
got down somehow or other, and ran as hard as I could 
with seventy rounds of ball cartridge, a carbine, revolver, 
field-glass, and heavy boots. I went some 300 yards, when 
a fellow called Francis got a horse for me, but no saddle or 
bridle — a rein did for both ; when one of the Frontier Light 
Horse got wounded through the leg, and I had to jump off', 
put him on my horse, and run again. Colonel BuUer 
saved my life by taking me up behind him on his horse ; 
then Blaine, who had been keeping the natives off in the 
rear, saw me (as after I got my breath I got off the colonel's 
horse), and he nearly cried when he met me, all the fellows 

H 



98 EISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

thinking I had been killed on the top of the hill. He 
behaved as he always does, and stuck to me, and pulled 
me through the second time. The third time a major in 
the artillery, Tremlett by name, took me up behind. Our 
men and officers all behaved well, but the other volunteers 
were what Major Eobinson would call a big rabble. We 
lost ninety-three white men and a number of natives. The 
Frontier Light- Horse lost three officers and twenty-four 
non-commissioned officers and men, and sixty-six horses. 
Each of our men arrived in camp with another man behind 
him." 

The great Zulu army which nearly succeeded in en- 
circling Colonel Wood's mounted party at the Zlobane 
mountain, was discerned from the Kambula camp at 9 a.m. 
on the 29th of March. Flushed with the success of the 
previous day, and depending on their vast number and 
excellent organization, they had determined to sweep away 
for ever the small white force which had entrenched itself in 
their midst. For four hours the Zulu army continued to 
advance at a slow pace, executing the manoeuvres con- 
sidered necessary to surround Kambula. The left horn 
was seen marching in the direction of Baiter Spiuit for 
over three hours before the men of the right horn made 
their appearance. About 1 p.m. the enemy began to make 
a rapid advance to the right of the Kambula hill, facing 
Blood river. It was then time to prepare. Orders were 
given to eat dinners with haste. The alarm sounded, tents 
were lowered, positions were taken up on and underneath 
the waggons, boxes of ammunition were opened, and every 
preparation for defence was promptly made. 



ZULU DISASTER AT KAMBULA. 99 

When the right horn of the Zulu army was within two 
miles distance, a mounted party went out amidst hearty 
cheers to give them battle. Having advanced and fired, 
the enemy became too numerous, and our men retired, 
drawing the Zulus after them, which was the real object of 
this manoeuvre. The right horn of the enemy's army then 
commenced its attack in earnest, pressing on most bravely 
in spite of a tremendous fire from the artillery, the 90th 
Light Infantry, and the 1-1 3th. Shell ploughed their 
ranks, but they re-formed and steadily came on. At last, 
chiefly through the scathing fire of shot and shell from four 
of our big guns, the movements of the enemy became 
paralyzed, and a panic commenced. At the rear of the 
laager a body of the Zulus had gained the top of the hill, 
about 300 yards off, and kept up a galling fire upon the 
men of the 13th Eegiment. All, however, was soon over, 
the Zulus wavered, hesitated, turned, and fled. Amidst 
lusty cheers our men followed in pursuit. F and G Com- 
panies of the 13th charged them down the ravine at the 
point of the bayonet. Shrapnel, case shot, etc., con- 
tinued to pour from the field-pieces on the heavy masses of 
disorganized Zulus. The cavalry for seven miles pursued 
them, until it was too dark to see. Many were shot down 
at distances of ten and fifteen yards, while hand-to-hand 
encounters with the flying foe diversified the scene. 

The strength of the Zulu army at Kambula exceeded 
20,000, and their plan of battle was evidently to advance 
the right horn of their army so as to entice our troops to 
come out and attack it. The left horn would then have 



100 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

advanced up the ravine, and gaining the summit of the 
hill, charge and take possession of the waggons, thus com- 
pletely surrounding our position. In fact, the Isandhlwana 
tactics were to be repeated. Fortunately, however, the 
lesson we learned there was not in vain, and Kambula 
proved this to demonstration. The Native Contingent ran 
away before the fight, but the Basutos stood steadily at 
their posts and fought well. The flower of Cetywayo's 
army, consisting of young unmarried men, was engaged in 
this attack, and more than 1200 were slain. No fewer than 
785 bodies of Zulus were buried in the immediate vicinity 
of the camp. It is noteworthy that they had many kinds 
of breechloaders — Martini, Snider, and Mitford's patterns 
being all represented. It was a grand sight to see the great 
moving mass of more than 20,000 Zulu warriors advancing 
. straight amidst a withering fire. They shouted out when 
near the camp, '' We are the boys from Isandhlwana," and 
retreated under circumstances where no European forces in 
the world could have advanced. The victory was specially 
one of artillery. The first shot was fired at 1.25 p.m., 
and the last at 5.25 p.m. Three hundred and sixty-two 
shells and eighty-six charges of canister were expended. 
Many acts of gallantry were performed. Colonel "Wood, as 
usual, was pre-eminent. The bravery and coolness of 
Captain Woodgate was the subject of admiration, while 
Colonel Buller greatly added to the laurels he had so 
deservedly earned in the retreat from the Zlobane moun- 
tain. It was on the latter occasion that he six times risked 
his life in carrying out of danger and saving six men who. 



INTOMBE. 101 

being unhorsed, must otherwise have fallen into the hands 
of a remorseless and savage foe. Thirty killed and fifty 
wounded was the loss on our side at the battle of Kambula. 

A description of the repulse of the Zulus from Kambula 
camp has been written by Commandant Schermbrucker, 
and this is what he says : — " As soon as we saw them turn- 
ing their backs, I got all my Kaffrarians rapidly to mount 
the horses already saddled, and shortly afterwards all the 
mounted forces in camp were ready, and we raced helter- 
skelter after the flying Zulus. I took the extreme right, 
Colonel Buller led the centre, and Colonel Eussell, with 
mounted infantry, took the left. For fully seven miles I 
chased two columns of the enemy^ who tried to escape over 
the Umvolozi, but I came beforehand and pushed them off 
the road. They fairly ran like bucks ; but I was after them 
like the whirlwind, and shooting incessantly into the thick 
column, which could not have been less than 5000 strong. 
They became exhausted, and shooting them down would 
have taken too much time ; so we took the assegais from 
the dead men, and rushed among the living ones, stabbing 
them right and left, with fearful revenge for the misfortunes 
of the 28th inst. No quarter was given." 

On the 12th of March a very serious disaster occurred 
at the Intombe river, where an escort of the 80th Kegiment, 
under Captain Moriarty, was laagered. That officer com- 
manded a party of 104 men convoying a train of eighteen 
waggons variously loaded, en route from Derby to Luneberg. 
The flooded state of the river caused detention for several 
days. A small party under Lieutenant Harward was 



102 IIISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

stationed on the other side. That officer heard a shot 
fired at 4 a.m., and shortly afterwards was roused by an 
alarm, and saw, when the fog lifted, a dense mass of Zulus, 
about 4000 in number, extending across the valley and on 
the point of surprising the camp on the other side of the 
river. He immediately put his men, thirty-five in number, 
under arms, and directed their fire on the flanks of the 
enemy. With' tremendous celerity. Captain Moriarty's 
force was surprised and the camp taken. An immediate 
retreat was made by Harward, but not before the awful 
sight was witnessed of the enemy slaughtering our men 
on the banks of the river and in the water. The Zulus 
crossed and came on in dense masses. A hand-to-hand 
fight ensued, and a vain attempt to rally was made ; then, 
finding re-formation impossible. Lieutenant Harward put 
spurs to his horse and galloped into Luneberg. Forty- 
four men were killed. 

An eye-witness, Mr. Josiah Sussons, says : — *'Iwas in the 
waggon, sleeping, and early in the morning I got up to see if 
it was daylight, and saw the Kafirs swarming around within 
twenty yards of me. The alarm was given, and CaiDtain 
Moriarty called out, * Guards out.' I ran back to my waggon 
to get my rifle (which belonged to No. 1 Company, Trans- 
vaal Kifle Volunteers, of which corps I am a member), but 
in the confusion of the bullets flying about me, I could not 
get it out. I now found it so dangerous that I determined 
to try to bolt, if I could, without remaining to take my 
clothes. As I emerged from the waggon for the last time, 
I heard Captain Moriarty cry out, * Fire away, men ; I 



LOSSES OF THE ENGLISH. 103 

am done.' I then went to the adjoining waggon to call 
Whittington (also a Pretoria man), and I told him the 
niggers were around. He immediately came out and 
jumped down, but was caught almost as soon as he got 
to the ground, and assegaied. The poor fellow shrieked out, 
but without avail, as no assistance was at hand. Seeing 
that I was powerless to do anything, having no arms of 
any kind, I ran down between the oxen, and made for the 
river, which was about sixty yards off. I found the Zulus 
shooting and stabbing the people in all directions. The 
sight was a most horrifying one, and never to be forgotten. 
I had to dodge about to save myself, and am surprised that 
I managed to get through at all. As soon as I got to the 
river, I jumped in and made a dive, as swimming was too 
dangerous, the Zulus standing on the banks, and at the 
edge of the river, as thick as thieves, throwing assegais 
and aiming their guns wherever they saw a head. I came 
up about the middle of the river, but the moment my head 
was out, I saw several Zulus pointing their guns, and ready 
to fire. I therefore dived again, and came out on the 
other side. The river was very full at the time, and 
a strong current running. In crossing I had torn off my 
shirt, the only garment I possessed, and therefore when 
I landed I was entirely in a state of nudity. I now found 
that fighting was still going on on all sides of me, and that 
it was almost impossible I could get any further, and in my 
desperation I contemplated throwing myself in the water, 
to be drowned peaceably, rather than suffer the death by 
torture of many of those I saw around me. I, however. 



104 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

got into a courageous spirit again, and dashed off, keeping 
as much out of the way of the enemy as I could. Several 
shots were fired at me, and assegais were flying in all 
directions, but somehow I happened to be fortunate and 
got clear of the encampment. I made for Meyer's station 
as fast as I could, and overtook one soldier on the road, 
who was shot dead just as I got up to him. I overtook two 
others shortly after, who were also shot. Getting further 
on, I fell in with Sergeant Booth and about a dozen men, 
who were keeping up a retreating fire, and fighting very 
pluckily. I rested for a few minutes with them, during 
which time I espied the Zulus coming round the hill to 
intercept us. I informed Sergeant Booth of this, and he 
kept up a steady fire upon them, and made the enemy 
retire back into the hills. I cannot speak too highly of the 
conduct of Sergeant Booth on this occasion ; he fought most 
pluckily, and lost four of his small band here. It was en- 
tirely owing to their doing so well that any of us managed 
to get through at all. The Zulus would have entirely 
surrounded us, and not a soul could have escaped. Seven- 
teen leaders and drivers were killed altogether, amongst 
them being Whittington, Campbell, and Goss. As I got 
in camp, I met Major Tucker going out with his men to 
the relief." 

One of the most sensational events which occurred 
during April at the head-quarters camp of the fourth 
(Colonel Wood's) column, was the arrival there of a man 
whose hairbreadth escapes enable us to realize that truth is 
stranger than fiction. Captain Mayne Keid could scarcely 



EAIR-BREABTH ESCAPE. 105 

venture on imagining what our readers "will find stated 
below as sober fact. There may be exaggeration or colour- 
ing, but in the main the narrative is correct. Mr. Kudolph, 
landrost of Utrecht, when out scouting on the Zunguin Neck 
with five men, encountered a party of forty Zulus, of whom 
he killed four. He picked up about the same time a 
Frenchman named Grandier, who had belonged to Colonel 
Weatherley's troop of Border Horse, and was made prisoner 
by the enemy when so many of his comrades fell at the 
Zlobane mountain. The story was told to Colonel Wood 
and the staff — Captain Maude taking notes, the substance 
of which is as follows : — He (Grandier) was one of the very 
few who succeeded in charging through the mass of Zulus 
by whom they were beset in front and rear. He had got 
on to fairly good ground, and had set a comrade on his 
horse, he running by the side, when a Kafir caught him 
by the leg, and he was immediately overpowered by 
numbers and made prisoner. His captors took him to 
UmbeUini's kraal, on the south side of the Zlobane, about 
half-way up. He saw that chief, who asked him where 
Shepstone was, and who was the commander of the com- 
mando to which he belonged. He was kept prisoner that 
night in a kraal, and sent out the next morning to work 
in the mealie fields. Soon after he was taken by two or 
three mounted men to the middle of a big commando, all 
of whom threatened him with death, while the chief, 
Manymane, ordered him to be sent prisoner to Cetywayo. 
He stopped one day after that at the Zlobane, starting the 
next day for Ulundi in charge of four men riding, while he 



106 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

was made to walk and carry their provisions. He was quite 
naked, all his clothes having been taken from him. They 
took four days to make the journey, arriving in the evening, 
when a messenger was sent forward to announce their 
coming to the king. He remained all that night and next 
day tied in a field. On the following day, at noon, he was 
taken to Cetywayo, where a half-caste Dutchman, with long 
hair, translated. Cetywayo asked what the English wanted 
coming in that way to his country. He asked after Oham, 
where he was stopping, and said he would kill him and 
Shepstone and everyone else, as he had plenty of men 
to do the work. He was very particular to learn the name 
of the commander of the Kambula column. After replying 
to these questions, Grandier was removed in custody to a 
kraal, where he was threatened and beaten with very little 
respite, and for four days had nothing but mealies to eat. 
Some messengers then came and reported to Cetywayo 
that Umbellini and his brother had been killed in the 
attack on Colonel Wood's camp. On this Cetywayo 
ordered Grandier to be sent back to Umbellini's Kafirs, that 
they might sacrifice him to the manes of their deceased 
chief. He was sent back next day with a guard of two 
Zulus, only one of whom had a gun, though plentifully 
supplied with assegais. On the 13th, about noon, they 
were resting, after a long tramp, and the Zulus being sleepy, 
Grandier watched his opportunity, snatched an assegai, 
and pinned one man to the earth ; the other woke up in 
a fright and ran for his life. Grandier then made off 
in the direction of the camp, walking all night and steering 



BELIEF OF EKOWE. 



107 



a course by the stars, when this morning he was seen by 
Mr. Kudolph's party and brought in, so crippled in the 
feet that he is at present in hospital. He saw at Ulundi 
a Portuguese, who makes guns for Cetywayo, and on the 
morning of the 14th so large a force of Kafirs, driving 
cattle, passed him that he was obliged to remain hid all 
the morning to let them pass. 

About the beginning of April, everything was at last 
ready for the relief of Ekowe. Nearly six thousand troops 
of all arms started from Fort Tenedos, representing almost 
every branch of the service. The relieving column consisted 
as follows : — 

EKOWE EELIEVING COLUMN. 

FlEST DlVISIOX OF THE CoLUMN. 

Lieutenant -Colonel Law, R.A., commanding 



Naval Brigade of H.M.S. Shah and Tenedos, except 
the Eoyal Marines of the Bhah 

The 57tli Eegiment 

2 companies the " Buffs " 

5 companies 99th. Eegiment 

5th Battalion N.N.C. 

Mounted infantry- 
Do. volunteers 
Do. natives 

Native foot scouts 

Commissariat and transport department 

Medical department 

Total 



Men. 

350 

640 

140 

430 

1200 

10 

40 

130 

150 



1660 whites. 
1480 N.C. 



Grand total 



3140 fighting men. 



Artillery — 2 9-pounder guns. 

2 24-pounder rocket tubes. 



1 Catling gun. 



There accompanied this division of the column the train of supplies 



108 



HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 



for Ekowe (a month's supply for 1200 men, about 25 waggons) ; a train 
of supplies for both divisions of the column for 10 days, about 25 waggons. 

Second Division of the Column. 

Lieutenant -Colonel Pemberton, 60th Rifles, commanding. 

Men. 
Naval Brigade of H.M.S. Boadicea ... ... 190 



Royal Marines, Bhah and Boadicea 


.. 100 


60th Rifles 


... 540 


91st Highlanders 


.. 850 


4th Battalion N.N.C., 


.. 800 


Commissariat and transport department 




Medical department 




Total ... 


.. 1680 whites 




800 N.C. 



Total fighting men 2480 

Artillery — 2 24-pounder rocket tubes. 
1 Gatling gun. 

Grand total ... ... 1660 whites. 

1680 do. 



3340 



1480 natives. 
800 do. 



2280 



Grand total of fighting men ... ... 5620 

On Saturday, the 30tli of March, a start was made at 
daybreak, and the column halted within entrenchments for 
the night at Inyoni river. The force advanced without 
tents, and with only a blanket and waterproof sheet for 
each man. On Sunday, the Amatekulu river was reached, 
and here a considerable detention took place in conse- 
quence of difficulty in crossing. On Tuesday the column 
reached the hills which border the Inyezane valley, and 



CAMP AT GINGHELOVO. 109 

then a site was selected for an entrenched laager. On 
this day mounted patrols and scouts of the enemy were 
seen for the first time. News was then received that a 
large force was marching down, and that an attack might 
be expected at any moment. The famous Ginghelovo camp 
was then constructed. It was made sufficiently large for 
2000 cattle to be placed in the centre, trenches were dug, 
and the waggons laced together according to the approved 
method. 

About eight o'clock on Tuesday evening (2nd April), a 
false alarm took place, but nothing further noteworthy 
occurred until daybreak of the next day, when the mounted 
natives and scouts were sent out. A little before 6 a.m. 
(Wednesday, 3rd April) our men fell back shooting steadily, 
and immediately after two large columns of the enemy 
were seen coming down the Inyezane hills, while one came 
round the left by the Amatekulu Bush, and another 
smaller one from the direction of the old military kraal. 
In ten minutes' time the camp was surrounded and the 
attack commenced. The nature of the ground favoured 
the enemy, who came up with a rush to a distance of 400 
yards ; then they scattered and obtained shelter in long 
grass which grew about the camp. For one hour and a 
half, a heavy fusillade was kept up from both sides, and as 
the Gatlings, two 9-pounder guns, and the rocket tubes 
were all in action, such a tremendous fire was poured into 
the enemy as to prevent the possibility of their advancing. 
Many of our men, firing from waggons and high positions, 
were able to pick off Zulus with their rifles. This destruc- 



110 EISTORT OF THE ZULU WAR. 

tive fire evidently had a great effect upon the enemy. 
At half past seven o'clock, the mounted men and those of 
the Native Contingent went out amidst tremendous cheering, 
and drove the Zulus before them from the long grass, and 
continued the pursuit for a distance of four miles. Masses 
of the enemy then clustered upon the hills, but dispersed 
upon being shelled from the fort. 

During the action, Lord Chelmsford and his staff went 
round the trenches, encouraging the men, and telling them 
to fire steadily and low. The general himself was not 
mounted, but the members of his staff were. Colonel Crea- 
lock received a wound in the arm, and lost a horse ; a bullet 
went through Lieutenant Milne's clothes ; and Captain 
Molyneux had two horses shot under him. No fewer than 
773 dead bodies of the enemy were found within a distance 
of 1000 yards from the fort. 

A flying column was now formed, consisting of the 57th, 
60th, and 91st regiments, with 100 of the Naval Brigade, 
and a few of John Dunn's scouts. It ought to be mentioned 
that Dunn had already performed excellent service, and was 
attached to head-quarters as principal guide. The life of 
this man had been a very peculiar one. Born of English 
parents in the Cape Colony, he had been brought to Natal, 
and early in life entered Zululand as a trader. Eventually, 
he learned the language and adopted the manners and 
habits of the savages. He was made an induna or chief, 
acquired cattle, wives, and other property, and in many 
respects became the right-hand councillor and adviser of 
Cetywayo. This is the more remarkable as he had, previous 



MEETING OF PEARSON AND CEELMSFORD. Ill 

to that monarch's accession, espoused the cause of his 
brother. It is suspected that he made himself pecuHarly 
useful in supplying guns, and in this way gained much of 
both his influence and his wealth. "When war was declared 
by Britain, he came over with his flocks, herds, and wives, 
became the trusted adviser and guide of the general in 
command, and was marked out for preferment and favour. 
The flying column left at daybreak on Thursday, reached 
the Inyezane at about eleven, and as the sun was setting 
came in view of the large hill behind which lay Ekowe. 
Colonel Pearson galloped out by the new road, with 500 
of his men, and when he grasped the hand of Lord 
Chelmsford felt like one called forth from a dungeon to 
the cheerful light of the sun. The fort he had guarded 
so well was relieved. Crushing anxiety and responsibility 
were succeeded by thankful congratulations. The cloud 
which hung around Ekowe had passsed away.* 

* One wlio was there, writing in Blaclciuood's Magazine, tells us : " On 
the afternoon of the 3rd (April) the column detailed on the 31st March, 
about 500 whites and 50 blacks, and the mounted infantry with one gun, 
left the fort, under General Pearson, to meet the relief column. ... A 
solitary horseman is seen towards 5 p.m., galloping up the new road to the 
fort : he had an officer's coat on, and we could see a sword dangling from his 
side. Who is he .? . . . He proved to be the correspondent of the Standard. 
'First in Ekowe, \he said; 'proud to shake hands with an Ekoweian.' A 
second horseman appeared, approaching the fort, his horse apparently much 
blown. Who is he ? The correspondent of the Argus (Cape Town) . They 
had a race who would be first in Ekowe, the Standard winning by five 
minutes. Thus, it was two Press correspondents who distanced every one 
and were the first men to arrive." 

Four officers and twenty-seven men were buried at Ekowe. Two hundred 
sick officers and men were taken to hospital ; Captain Wynne and Lieutenant 
Thirkell died shortly after. 



112 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE SEEVIOES OF NATIVE CONTINGENTS — LOED CHELMS- 
FOED AND SIE H. BULWEE — EEVIEW OF THE CAM- 
PAIGN — DIFFICULTIES OF TEANSPOET — IMMENSE 
DELAY — BUEYING THE DEAD AT ISANDHLWANA. 

The Native Contingent, composed of loyal Zulus, although 
a large force, turned out a comparatively useless one. 
After the battle of Isandhlwana, Colonel Glynn reports (on 
the 24th of January), *' The whole of the Native Contingent 
walked off this morning." The reasons for this conduct 
are furnished elaborately in a minute of Sir H. Bulwer, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Natal, dated the 29th of January. 
These men had numerous complaints. On the night of the 
23rd of January, whilst the European force at Rorke's 
Drift was entrenched, the Native Contingent had no such 
protection. The general and his staff leaving camp 
exercised a depressing influence. Uncertainty existed 
regarding their wives and families. These reasons, and 
reasons such as these, were furnished as explanations for 
their desertion. Sir Henry Bulwer had been always of 
opinion that to do away with the native system of organi- 
zation for the purpose of substituting a regimental system 
was one of very doubtful advisableness. Nevertheless, he 



BULWER AND CHELMSFORD. 113 

consented to give the men required, and no fewer than 
7050 were sent into the field. Lord Chelmsford declared 
that he had never been able to understand what the tribal 
system was, and that as often as he had endeavoured to 
obtain information he had been baffled by vague general- 
ities and oft-repeated laudations. So anxious, however, 
were the commandants to carry out what they considered 
the tribal system, that the companies were organized with 
uneven strength, in order that men of different tribes 
should be kept distinct. Sir Henry Bulwer believed that 
each column should have had a Native Contingent, and 
that these should have been led by officers who represented 
the Lieutenant-Governor, or Supreme Chief. They would 
have then moved and fought in accordance with their 
customs. The general could not agree to this. The natives 
must be divided into battalions 1000 strong, and into com- 
panies 100 strong. They were not to fight in their own 
fashion, and European officers, who did not know their 
language, were given commands among them. Dissatis- 
faction, discontent, and inefficiency resulted in such a 
manner that in all respects the large Native Contingent, 
numbering more than 7000 men, was a failure. 

Later on, very serious differences of opinion arose be- 
tween Lord Chelmsford and Sir Henry Bulwer. In reply 
to suggestions from the general, the Executive Council of 
Natal decided, on the 1st of March, that — 

*' (a.) In the opinion of this Council the proposition 
that raiding expeditions should be made into the Zulu 
country by the natives of this colony is unadvisable of 



114 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

adoption, as being an impolitic and undesirable system of 
war, as being calculated to provoke retaliation, and as 
tending to demoralize the people engaged in it. 

** {h.) 1. That the proposition to call out every avail- 
able native in the colony is open to serious objections. 

''2. That a large proportion of the able-bodied male 
population has already been called out, and that this 
Council considers it undesirable to press the power of the 
Supreme Chief to a point that would probably cause serious 
discontent amongst the natives. 

''3. That all trading, commercial, and farming opera- 
tions would be thereby disorganized and ruinous conse- 
quences would ensue, the natives forming practically the 
only labouring portion of the population in the upper 
districts of the colony. 

"4. That the calling out of the whole able-bodied male 
population would, in all probability, induce a panic, and be 
attended with serious inconveniences." 

It will thus be seen that very unfortunate differences of 
.opinion existed between the supreme military power and 
the civil government of Natal. It certainly must be 
.admitted that, as a rule, the friendly Zulus of the colony 
were of little good as fighting men in the campaign. 
Whether or not the opposite would have been the case if 
the dangerous experiment had been tried of allowing them 
to fight with their own weapons and in their own fashion 
is extremely doubtful. The tribal system, root and branch, 
is a failure in Natal, and a constant source of danger and 
anxiety. So soon, therefore, as by means of enlightened 



CORRESPONDENCE. 115 

statesmanshiiD it can be completely broken up and de- 
stroyed, the better for the protection and defence of the 
colony, as well as for the cause of civilization and the 
nation we are trying to civilize. 

On the 11th of April, the general, writing to the Secre- 
tary of State for War, says, ^' My orders regarding demon- 
strations were fully carried out, but the fullness of the 
Tugela would have prevented any general raid being made, 
even if the Natal natives had not been forbidden to cross the 
border by his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor of Natal." 
In order to enable my readers to understand the entne 
question fully, I subjoin that portion of Sir Henry Bulwer's 
despatch to the Secretary of State (April 16) which refers 
to the subject. He says, *^ I have placed under the com- 
mand of the lieutenant-general, for service in the Zulu 
country, the Natal Mounted Police, most of the Natal 
Mounted Volunteers, a number of natives who have been 
formed into what is called the Natal Native Contingent, and 
a number of natives for pioneer, transport, and hospital 
service, and that I have never interfered with them, nor 
have I expected that the lieutenant-general's orders to them 
should be referred to me before being complied with ; but 
with regard to the native levies, which have been called 
out for the defence of the colony, and placed under the 
command of colonial district commanders to protect the 
border and the colony, I have never placed them in any 
way, directly or indirectly, under the command of the 
lieutenant-general for service in the Zulu country, nor have 
I authorized, directly or indirectly, in any way, their being 



116 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

taken across the border, or their being employed in 
making raids into the Zulu country. These levies 
were called out expressly and solely for service in the 
colony and for the defence of the colony, and were placed 
under the colonial district commanders for that purpose 
only. The colonial district commanders were, of course, 
made subject, so far as regarded the defence of their dis- 
tricts, and the movement and disposition of any forces 
under them in their districts, to the military command ; 
but no authority has been given, either to these colonial 
district commanders or to the lieutenant-general, to emplo}' 
the native levies, which were exclusively called out for the 
defence of the colony, on any service in the Zulu countrj^ 
and I submit that the lieutenant-general in issuing any in- 
structions for these native levies to cross the border to 
make raids into Zulu country, in issuing these instructions 
as he has done, without my authority, without my con- 
currence, and positively without any reference to me, has 
exceeded his powers and acted without a due regard for 
the authority of this Government. 

" I pass by the question of the expediency or policy of 
making raids into the Zulu country. In a letter addressed 
by me to the High Commissioner, I have ventured to put 
before his Excellency for his consideration the question of 
the expediency of such a policy, and the risks involved in 
such a course, namely, the risk of retaliation, and the risk 
of irritating and alienating imnecessarily those of the Zulu 
people who might otherwise be disposed to come to friendly 
terms with us, and through whose friendly disposition 



NATIVE LEVIES. 117 

towards us a satisfactory solution of the difficulties between 
us and the Zulu people might eventually be more easily 
arrived at. But I do not claim to have any authority in 
respect of this question, and I have done no more than 
venture to lay my suggestion before the High Commis- 
sioner, and to forward a copy of my letter to the lieutenant- 
general. 

*' With regard to the employment of the native levies 
who had been called up for the defence of the border on 
service beyond the border and in making raids, I have 
already shown that the levies to which I refer were never 
in' any way placed under the lieutenant-general for employ- 
ment across the border; and I have also shown that they 
were levies which have nothing whatsoever to do with the 
Native Contingent battalions to which the lieutenant-general 
refers as having been hitherto associated with the British 
troops, and which were placed under his command for 
service across the border. The question, therefore, put by 
the lieutenant-general, in the way that it is put before the 
Secretary of State for War, by not distinguishing between 
the two descriptions of native forces, but, as is actually 
done in the last paragraph but one, by naming and asso- 
ciating the two together as if there were no distinction 
between them, fails, I think, to represent the real state of 
the case." 

The general in command had felt extremely what he 
considered the absence of co-operation on the part of Sir 
Henry Bulwer. Writing to the Secretary of State for War 
on the 11th of April, Lord Chelmsford mentions that when 



118 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAB. 

he bad determined to move up to Ekowe, secret instructions 
were sent to the different commanders along the border 
from the Lower Tugela up to Ivambula hill, requesting them 
to make strong demonstrations all along the line, and, 
if possible, to raid into Zululand. At this juncture the 
Lieutenant-Governor forbade the Natal natives to cross. 
A general raid into Zululand effected by a large body of 
native troops would, in the opinion of Lord Chelmsford, 
have produced very important results, and the general 
strongly resents the interference of Sir H. Bulwer with 
his plans. The quarrel — for it was nothing less — to which 
allusion has now been made, was very probably one of the 
reasons for the appointment of Sir Garnet Wolseley, who 
in his own person united both supreme civil and supreme 
military power. 

In the Zulu war there were two campaigns — the first 
ended in Isandhlwana, the second at Ulundi. Between 
these battles there was an immense interval, chiefly 
occupied in moving great masses of men and greater 
masses of supplies to the front. Lord Chelmsford is 
blamed for want of foresight and care in the first campaign, 
want of energy and judgment in the second campaign, and 
want of generalship in both. There are two sides to the 
case, and it is necessary to advert to both. Great diffi- 
culties were in the way ; but until the arrival of Sir Garnet 
Wolseley and the joyful day of Ulundi, it must be admitted 
that the general did not conquer obstacles, but obstacles 
conquered him. 

Let us endeavour to view the general conduct of the first 



BE VIEW OF TEE CAMPAIGN. 119 

campaign in the light of facts about which there can be no 
question. Early in January Lord Chelmsford was at the 
head of an army sufficiently numerous and powerful for the 
conquest of Zululand. We shall see that at Ulundi 4000 
soldiers, properly handled, were adequate to the complete 
defeat of 20,000 Zulus, com]3rising the flower of Cetywayo's 
army ; therefore it is absurd to imagine that, if good 
generalship had been used, any defeat could have been 
sustained in the first advance. Colonel Pearson was 
thoroughly victorious at Inyezane, and Colonel Wood was 
also successful. Disastrous failure, however, overtook the 
column of the general-in-chief. Lord Chelmsford, con- 
ducting a large force with enormous stores, made Korke's 
Drift on the Tugela his base of operations, and subsequently 
was forced to trust to the extraordinary efforts of a young 
Engineer officer for the safety of Natal. All experience of 
Zulu warfare had shown the absolute necessity of entrench- 
ments, yet the central column marched into Zululand 
without constructing a single breastwork. The personal 
safety of the commander-in-chief and that of half his 
column became really due to a sudden inspiration and to 
a happy accident. Young subalterns conceived and carried 
a plan of defence where mealie-bags formed the breast- 
works and biscuit-boxes the entrenchments. It was 
providential that such officers as Chard and Bromhead 
were there to do the work. 

Lord Chelmsford was woefully deficient in knowledge of 
the enemy's movements. An immense army lay in wait 
to destroy his camp while he, with scattered forces, pursued 



120 HISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

a Will-o'-the-wisp foe which found no difficulty in luring 
him on to destruction. He had mounted men, but does 
not seem to have used them efficiently as scouts. Colonel 
Buller, the able head of his intelligence branch, was in quite 
another part of the country. Lord Chelmsford either com- 
pletely despised the enemy, which was a blunder in itself, 
or he was incapable of aj)preciating his real position, and of 
taking the evident means of preserving the column under 
his charge. He evidently wanted that genius or instinct 
so absolutely necessary to constitute a great military leader. 
A really great general, like a poet, is born, not made ; and 
it was the misfortune of the British army not to have 
secured one on this important occasion. 

No entrenchment or laager was either made or ordered 
to be made at Isandhlwana, although it must be admitted 
that if the general had been as lucky in subordinates there 
as at Eorke's Drift, a very different issue of the day would 
have been the result. Nothing could surpass the madness 
of Colonel Durnford in scattering his troops at the ver}- 
moment when, by means of laagering, or at least forming a 
hollow square, it would have been possible to resist the 
attack of the enemy. It is a libel on our soldiers to hint 
that they did not behave well. The short service system 
is in no way responsible for the disaster. The gallant 
24th, as well as the other troops, fought with the utmost 
bravery, and, if they had been commanded by such a man 
as Wood or Pearson, undoubtedly would have gained a 
brilliant victory. A few hundred Dutchmen, without breech - 
loading guns, had behind a rough fortification of waggons 



LORD CHELMSFORD CRLTICISED. 121 

defied an entire Zulu army. Chard and Bromliead, with 
100 infantry soldiers, at the back of mealie-bags and 
biscuit-boxes, were able to drive back immensely superior 
forces. It is therefore preposterous to imagine that our 
troops at Isandhlwana, assisted by well-served large guns, 
could not easily, if properly commanded, have been able 
to hold their own, at least until the rest of the column 
arrived. 

In ten days' time Lord Chelmsford was so unfortunate 
as to sustain a most signal defeat, in which half his force 
was literally butchered, and his large quantity of ammu- 
nition and stores captured by the enemy. His flank was 
turned and his column surprised by an army of naked 
savages, without artillery, about whose movements his 
ignorance was as profound as it was surprising. A similar 
success to that gained by Colonel Pearson would have 
virtually concluded the war. A march to Ulundi by a 
strong flying column would have been possible, and Great 
Britain might then have saved the blood of many of her 
best soldiers, and fully three million pounds sterling of 
her treasure. 

The opinions now expressed are those of the majority 
of military correspondents and military men, but the 
thorough novelty and difficulty of operations do not seem 
sufficiently taken into account. Besides, in judging Lord 
Chelmsford, it must be specially remembered that his 
instructions about concentrating at Isandhlwana camp 
were not attended to, and to this fact many attributed 
the disaster that ensued. Certainly no one deserved 



122 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

sympathy more than this general, whose misfortunes were 
quite as great as his faults. Subsequently, he did every- 
thing in his power to make the campaign successful. 
Eeinforcements poured in, and were pushed forward to the 
front. It is true that delays occurred, but these, it is 
argued, were thoroughly unsurmountable. We shall find 
at last that Lord Chelmsford finished the campaign with 
glory and success at the great battle of Ulundi. The 
people of Natal and the Cape Colony, who had sympathized 
with his reverses, thoroughly recognized the greatness of 
this victory and rejoiced in his triumph. It is only fair, 
when furnishing opinions full of condemnation, to refer 
at the same time to the fact that contrary views are held 
by numerous men of intelligence, who have had every 
opportunity of studying the subject. 

The disaster of Isandhlwana was pregnant with results 
almost too awful to contemplate. Natal was panic-stricken. 
Twenty thousand white people were threatened, not only 
with the victorious army, but with hundreds of thousands 
of natives, kept heathen and alien from motives of policy, 
who would have, out of fear of Cetywayo, quickly joined 
any army of massacre which that tyrant could have sent 
to devastate Natal. Fortunately, in spite of their much- 
vaunted strategy, the Zulus proved unequal to the task 
of taking advantage of their victory. Had they, in the first 
instance, only allowed the general to move forward into his 
new camp, the destruction of the column could have been 
made complete. It was by a miracle that Lord Chelmsford 
and the men with him escaped. If they had been attacked 



PANIC IN NATAL. 123 

when, exhausted and dispirited, they flung themselves down 
on the reeking plain of Isandhlwana, it is extremely likely 
that the general and every man with him would have been 
killed. The gross absurdity of blaming Lord Chelmsford 
for not burying the dead on the field is only equalled by its 
injustice. The general and the remnant of his column were 
really fugitives, and it was not until they found that, by 
the heroic defence of Korke's Drift, the base of operations 
was still held, that they were able to breathe with any 
degree of safety. It was hoping against hope to imagine 
that a place really left unfortified could have been held 
against a victorious army ; and it is well to recognize the 
fact that not only Natal and its people, but Lord Chelms- 
ford and the remnant of his column, were saved by the 
heroes of this colonial Thermopylse. 

The awful pause of suspense, which lasted many weeks, 
passed by. The Tugela river and the indecision of the 
Zulu king saved the colony. Eeinf or cements which had 
been telegraphed for poured in with amazing celerity, and 
both Natal and British honour were saved. For nine 
weeks the beleaguered column under General Pearson had 
to suffer privations, and the Zulus, who had experienced 
what British soldiers could do behind biscuit-boxes at 
Eorke's Drift, hesitated to attack them when behind regular 
entrenchments at Ekowe. At last, as we had seen, relief 
was sent. Then another period of delay set in. Masses 
of troops continued to arrive, and early in May our strength 
in Natal comprised more than 22,000 men, divided as 
follows : — 



• 



124 EISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

First division (General Crealock's) ... ... 9,215 

Second division (General Newdigate's) ... 10,238 

General Wood's* flying column ... ... ... 3,092 

Effective and non-effective ... ... 22,545 

This was a large army, the most powerful force of Euro- 
peans ever engaged in war within South Afi'ica. The 
occasion was supreme, as the greatest power of the native 

* The following is a brief biography of this distinguished officer : — 
General Henry Evelyn Wood, Y.C., O.B., of the 90th Eegiment, and com. 
manding the column at Kambula, entered the Eoyal Navy in 1852, and 
served in the Naval Brigade as A.D.C. to Captain Peel, of the Shannon, from 
1st October, 1854, to 18th January, 1855, when he was severely wounded 
carrying up scaling ladders to the Redan. He was mentioned in Lord 
Raglan's despatches (medal with clasps. Knight of the Legion of Honour, 
5th Class of the Medjidie and Turkish medal). He next served in the 
Indian campaign of 1858 in the 17th Lancers, and as brigade-major in 
Somerset's Brigade, and was present at Eajghur, Sindwaho (mentioned in 
General Michel's despatches), Kharie, and Barode, mentioned in despatches 
(medal). In 1859-60 he was employed, while commanding 1st Eegiment 
Beatson's Horse, in hunting down rebels in the Seronge jungles ; thanked 
by the Indian Government for his services, and received the Victoria 
Cross. He raised the 2nd Eegiment Central Indian Horse. Accompanied 
Sir Garnet Wolseley to the Gold Coast in September, 1873, on special 
service, and served throughout the Ashantee war of 1873-4. Oi'ganized the 
natives forming " Wood's Eegiment." Commanded the attacking force at 
the action of Essaman (received the expression of her Majesty's approba- 
tion) . Commanded the troops at the head of the road, following the enemy 
from Mansu to the river Piah, prior to the arrival of the European troops, 
including the reconnaisance in force of the 27th November. Commanded 
the right column at the battle of Amoaful (slightly wounded), and com- 
manded the head-quarters of his regiment at the battle of Ordahsu and 
capture of Coomassie (several times mentioned in despatches, brevet of 
colonel, C.B., medal with clasps). His Victoria Cross was gained for 
having, on the 19 th of October, 1858, during action at Sandwaho, when in 
command of a troop of the 3rd Light Cavalry, attacked with much gallantry, 
almost single-handed, a body of rebels who had made a stand, whom he 
routed. Also, for having, subsequently, near Sindwaho, gallantly advanced 
with a duffadar and sowar of Beatson's Horse, and rescued from a band of 
robbers a potail, Chemmum Singh, whom they had captured and carried off 
to the jungles, where they intended to hang him. 



THE TRANSPORT DIFFICULTY. 125 

races had challenged the white man to a combat a Voiitrance, 
and the question simply was whether the Queen or Cety- 
wayo should rule supreme in the southern portion of this 
continent. Eeinf or cements were sent out with immense 
celerity, and landed with the utmost despatch and with 
neither casualty nor danger. But the delay in moving them 
was most disappointing. It must have puzzled the Zulus 
immensely to understand why we were so extraordinarily 
slow. Five weeks had elapsed since the battle of Ginghe- 
lovo without any set engagement with the enemy taking 
place, and the Press began to grumble. Transport rose to 
unprecedented rates. Twenty shillings per cwt., or ^20 per 
ton, was charged for the carriage of provisions a distance 
of fifty-four miles, from D'Urban to Pietermaritzburg. 
Oxen died in hundreds, and the progress of the battalions 
of infantry which were marching against an enemy famous 
for their celerity was most disheartening. The plan of 
Lord Chelmsford was that of sending on masses of troops, 
whose impedimenta in the shape of baggage and means of 
supply was so enormous as to completely cripple their 
movements. At a subsequent period, after the arrival of 
Sir Garnet Wolseley, we shall find that officer successfully 
employing more than 2000 Zulu carriers ; but this method, 
cheap and efficient, does not seem to have been tried by 
Lord Chelmsford. 

To lessen the enormous difficulties of transport, which 
crushed the efforts of our soldiers, a successful attempt was 
made to find a landing-place on the Zululand coast. H.M. 
gunboat Forester was sent on this quest, which was ulti- 



^^^ 



126 IIISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

mately successful, and Port Durnford was established as a 
place for landing supplies. This cut off more than a hun- 
dred miles of difficult road, and was of immense service to 
the advancing columns. During May, 1879, the Forester^ 
performed important duties in this service, and more than 
once fired at bands of the enemy near the seashore. 

It is impossible to write any chronicle of the movements 
of General Crealock's column which would be of interest. 
It crawled along among hundreds of dead oxen killed in 
dragging its heavy baggage and supplies over bad roads. 
Enormous expenditure for commissariat and transport ser- 
vices went on, and it was very evident that this war would 
be waged at frightful cost. The British lion growled in 
England, and there was an undoubted echo in the colonies. 

On the 15th of May, the head-quarters of the South 
African field force, under Major-General Newdigate, was 
situated on the Buffalo river, near Doornberg. The force 
comprised : — Eight wing of the 17th Lancers ; three com- 
panies l-21st Eegiment ; six comj^anies 58th ; N battery, 
5th Brigade, Eoyal Artillery, with six 7-pounders, under 
Colonel Harness; N Battery, 6th Brigade, with six 
9-pounders; Army Service Corps, Army Hosx^ital Corps, 
Bengaugh's Native Battalion, Natal Pioneers, and Natal 
Carbineers. Colonel Tatton Browne commanded the Eoyal 
Artillery, and Captain Anstey the Eoyal Engineers. Twelve 

* Captain Bradsliaw, of H.M.S. Shah, accompanied Captain Smith 
of the Forester. Mr. G. C. Cato, one of the oldest and most respected 
inhabitants of Natal, furnished important information with regard to a 
landing-place on the coast, and went in H.M. S. Forester to assist in choosing 
one. 



POSITION OF TEE FORCES. 127 

miles further on, at Conference Hill, was the most advanced 
post, where Colonel Davies, Grenadier Guards, commanded. 
The garrison was composed of six companies of the 94th 
Eegiment, Bettington's troop of Natal Horse, a detachment 
of the Eoyal Engineers, and Shepstone's Mounted Basutos. 
Another fort and laager had been erected for their defence, 
while eight miles fm^ther on towards the north-east was 
Brigadier- General Wood's new camp at Magwechana, close 
to the Sand Spruit, one of the sources of the White 
Umvolosi. General Marshall was with the cavaky camp. 
The experience of Isandhlwana was thoroughly sufficient, 
and the most complete precautions on all occasions were 
taken to prevent the possibility of disaster. Forts and 
fortified positions covered the country, but, nevertheless, 
there is excellent authority for saying that if a Zulu impi 
had been ordered to invade, there would have been no diffi- 
culty in driving back the weak border guard which lined the 
Tugela, getting behind the regular forces, and making a 
rapid destructive raid and an equally rapid retreat.* Cety- 
wayo's neglect of his opportunities was more useful in 

* A resident on the Tugela, writing to tlie Natal Mercury on the 7th of 
May, 1879, says, "It is my deliberate opinion that were the Zulus to cross 
the Tugela in force anywhere between Toohey's Drift and Fort Buckingham, 
they might avoid the military and make a raid into Natal easily. The 
general commanding has done all in his power to protect the border, by 
placing native guards, under white men, all along it; but their only use 
will be to give the alarm in case the Zulus attack. I have seen many of 
them, and I have asked them what they will do if the Zulus make an attack. 
' Kun, of course,' was the reply ; and I have heard — not from them, but from 
a third person — that they have said, ' If [our officers order us to cross the 
Tugela unsupported by white troops, we shall tell them to kill us in Natal, 
and save themselves the trouble of taking us to Zululand to be killed.' I 
therefore look upon the border guard as utterly worthless as a means of 



128 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAJR. 

protecting Natal than the immense armed force which, -with 
injQnite toil and a slowness almost passing description, 
moved on towards Ulundi. Loud were the public outcries 
at the transport break-down and the tardiness of opera- 
tions. General Newdigate's magnificent force seemed para- 
lyzed, and the difficulties of grass for horses and su^Dplies 
for troops en route was the theme of every journal and the 
excuse for a delay which was as costly as it was disap- 
pointing. 

On the 17th of May, a road was made in the direction of 
Landman's Drift, and a few days afterwards all the cavalry 
proceeded to Korke's Drift, and thence to Isandhlwana, 
for the purpose of burying the dead. It was certainly 
full time to perform this duty. One of the disgraceful 
occurrences or sad consequences of the Zulu w^ar is the 
fact, which cannot be slurred over without comment, that 
the bodies of our brave men who fell at Isandhlwana 
remained miburied for more than four months. Two regi- 
ments of Dragoon Guards, with the Lancers and numerous 
other troops, moved on with alacrity to perform the honour- 
able task. The force advanced in line, echelon, or column 
of squadrons, with extensive advance and rear guards, as 
well as flankers. At night the men bivouacked in groups 
of twelve, with their saddles turned inwards and placed in 



defence, and two at least of the volunteers at Tkring's Post — intelligent 
men they are — entirely agree with me. 

" What may be the state of afEairs at Cetywayo's kraal I know not ; but 
this I do know, namely, that all along the Tugela border the Zulus have 
returned to and occupied their kraals, and that they sometimes shout 
defiance and exchange shots with the border guards." 



TFiOOPS MABCHING. 129 

a circle. At last they looked clown from the Biggarsherg 
upon Eorke's Drift and the Isandhlwana mountain in the 
distance. One regiment of the Lancers and one of the 
Dragoon Guards, as well as half the Natal Carbineers, 
swept the country in the neighbourhood. The smoke of 
blazing huts rose up like burnt-offerings from the hill- altars 
of Zululand. The signal-fires of the savages helped to 
light up the country at night, and the British were again 
on the field where Cetywayo had gained his first and last 
victory. General Marshall, with Dragoons, Lancers, irre- 
gular horse, police, and artillery, crossed the river at 
daybreak, and advanced in open order. But my readers 
will prefer to read an account of what was seen and done 
at Isandhlwana from the pen of a soldier who was there. 
The correspondent of the Times of Natal writes : — 

''We pushed on very steadily and carefully, and at 
half -past nine our advance-guard was on the ridge over- 
looking the valley beyond Isandhlwana. There it lay, 
a magnificent stretch of country, with undulating plains 
for miles, only broken by dongas and small rises, and 
bordered by high hills on each side. Who would have 
thought, looking down on the quiet scene, that it had 
witnessed one of the most terrific fights and disasters of 
modern times ? The grass had grown up over the whole 
site of what had once been our camp, and was thickly 
intermixed with mealie stalks and oat hay, green and 
growing yet. Among these lay the bodies of our poor 
soldiers, scattered about in all postures, and in all stages 
of decay; while the positions of our tents were indicated 



130 ins TOBY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

by the broken remains of boxes, trunks, tins of preserved 
meats, remnants of the tents themselves, and masses 
of disordered papers, books, and letters, etc., etc. The 
only thing, however, that at once drew the attention of 
a casual observer was the broken remains of waggons and 
the skeletons of horses and oxen. Everything else was 
hidden at first sight, and required searching for to be 
noticed. One thing we had observed coming along the 
road was the fresh spoor of a waggon or two, and vv^e con- 
jectured that it had been recently used in conveying crops 
from Sirayo's valley away into the strongholds further 
inland. The spoor of two mounted Kafirs, and one on 
foot, was also traced by the scouts fresh that morning; 
one of the horses was shod all round, and these mpn were 
evidently of the party left by the enemy to watch the 
coming of our troops. For some time after our arrival, 
and while prej)arations were being actively carried out 
to harness the horses to the best waggons, all the men ex- 
cept those on vedette or other duty were allowed to wander 
over the scene of the disaster. The Carbineers, under 
Captain Shepstone, made immediately for their camp, and 
tried to find any relics of their dead brethren. Nothing of 
any consequence was, however, found near their lines ; but 
upon searching over the ground where the bodies of some 
of them had been seen on the night after Isandhlwana, 
Captain Shepstone came upon the bodies of Colonel 
Durnford, Lieutenant Scott, and nearly all the Carbineers, 
except London and Bullock, and those few who were killed 
along the fugitive path. Poor Durnford was easily recog- 



ISANDELWANA REVISITED. 131 

nizable, and he had on his mess waistcoat, from the pocket 
of which Shepstone took a small pocket-knife with his name 
on it. Two rings were also taken, and are with the knife 
to be sent home in memoriam to the colonel's father. 
Durrant Scott lay partially hidden under a broken piece 
of a waggon, and had evidently not been mutilated or 
touched after his death. He had his patrol jacket on, 
buttoned across, and although the rest of the body was 
only a skeleton, yet, strange to say, the face was like in 
life, all the hair being still on, and the skin strangely 
parched and dried up, although perfect. Both these 
bodies lay right in the midst of the rest of the young 
colonists who fell gallantly in defence of their country ; and, 
judging from the position in which they all were, they 
must have made one last gallant stand, and have been 
killed altogether. None of these so found had attempted 
to run, but had stuck together in life as we found them 
in death. Knowing all of them well, and how they did 
their duty, I felt it almost impossible to examine any, and 
had to leave the scene for another one. I can only add 
that Durnford's body was wrapped in canvas and buried 
in a kind of waterwash, while all the others were covered 
over with stones, etc., and their names written in pencil on 
wood or a stone close by them. 

" The bodies of the Eoyal Artillery and Natal Mounted 
Police were also buried, the only ones left untouched being 
those of the 24th Eegiment, which was done at the express 
desire of Colonel Glyn and the officers, in the hope of their 
being able some day to do it themselves. This appeared, 



132 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

however, very strange to us, and many remarks were made 
about the seeming dishonour to part of our brave dead. 
However, let us hope that some day, not far distant, we 
may be able to return to that once blood-red field and bury 
all the bodies, bones, and relics that may be left. Great 
numbers of waggons have undoubtedly been taken away, 
as also everything of value in the camp, and many bodies 
have been, through one cause or another, either wholly 
or partially removed or disturbed, so as to effectually 
prevent recognition. I myself did not move far out of 
camp, and, therefore, may be a bad judge, but from vdiat 
I saw there cannot have been more than 200 bodies in the 
camp itself, and out of these not 25 Kafirs. Doubtless, 
had I gone out to where the fighting first commenced, 
I should have found many more bodies, but I am glad for 
my own sake that I did not do so. Others, who had not 
perhaps so many bitter feelings or sorrowful remembrances 
of those lying around us, went further and saw more, 
although I cannot hear of any one having recognized any 
more bodies of officers, except those of the Hon. S. Vereker 
and young Gibson, both lieutenants in the Native Con- 
tingent. Many interesting relics were found and brought 
away by others, and I know of a few cases where letters 
addressed to relatives at home from those among the killed 
were found complete, and will be sent home, to be held 
in loving regard by the living, but will cause many sores 
scarce healed to be reopened. The general was anxious, 
for more reasons than one, to get away, and therefore, 
as soon as the waggons were ready, we made a start back 



KAFFRARIAN RIFLEMEN. 133 

at twelve, and reached Eorke's Drift at half-past three 
Avithout any hitch whatever. Immediately on getting hack 
I went inquiring among the different parties who had heen 
over that day, and gleaned some other interesting facts 
from them. One officer in the Dragoon Guards, while out 
with his squadron hurning kraals, found in one signs of 
very recent occupation, and the staff of the Queen's colour 
of the l-24th. He also later on came across a kraal full of 
skeletons of Zulus ; and this fact, taken in conjunction with 
the finding of large graves on the left of our camp con- 
taining bodies of the enemy, goes far to prove that the 
Zulus did move their dead bodies, and as the kraal was 
some two miles off where skeletons were found, they pro- 
bably also moved them in our waggons. The forty 
waggons we brought away included two water carts in 
good preservation, one gun limber, a rocket battery cart, 
and three Scotch carts. All that we left behind, in number 
not more than twenty, were in a partially or entirely dis- 
abled condition. Counting all these, therefore, there are 
still sixty or seventy waggons missing, which have been 
taken away at different times." 

The irregular horse recruited in the Cape Colony and 
Natal deserve special mention. Their services during the 
war were of a most important and valuable character. 
Most of them were attached to General Wood's column, 
and in the many daring raids in which their services were 
used proved excellent soldiers. Among the most prominent 
of these corps was that of the Kaffrarian Eiflemen, under 
Commandant Schermbrucker. On the 30th of April, at 



134 IIISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

Utreclit, on the occasion of the expiry of their engagement, 
that officer hade farewell to his officers and men in an elo- 
quent address in which he recalled their principal services. 
Six months previously, on a public parade at Pietermaritz- 
burg, they had been selected by Lord Chelmsford for a 
post of danger, in consequence of the manner in which they 
had fought on, the borders of the Cape Colony during the 
Gaika rebellion. For nearly three months the important 
and dangerous post of Luneberg had been held, and the 
handful of white men had inflicted serious losses on the 
enemy, and secured safe communication via Intombe to 
Derby. They had been attached to " that glorious column " 
commanded by Evelyn Wood, and formed part of the forces 
under BuUer engaged in the rescue of Oham's people at 
his surrender. They were also in the disastrous storming 
of the Zlobane and the glorious battle of Kambula. 
Admirable obedience and cheerful discipline w^ere main- 
tained in the face of 20,000 enemies. Their last duties 
were the harassing ones of escorting convoys en route 
from Batlee Spruit to Kambula.* What was said, and said 

* A few particulars connected with the gallant Schermbrucker's move- 
ments cannot fail to be of interest. Having assumed command on April 15th, 
he directed his first attention to Luneberg, where he arrived with Colonel Brav, 
C.B., about the middle of May, when he reconnoitred in preparation for an 
attack upon Tafelberg (Umbellini's caves), accompanied by Captain Moore, 
4th Regiment, and an orderly. They got too far within the enemy's lines, 
and with river and a dangerous donga between them, on the road back to 
camp found themselves attacked by about fifty Zulus, all armed with Martini- 
Henry rifles. The commandant was unarmed, except his British bull-dog 
(a little revolver). His horse was shot under him ; Captain Moore's fell, also 
shot down dead. The orderly mounted behind the commandant was thrown 
again and again, whilst the Zulus came closer and closer. At last the orderly 
got somewhat confused and could not be remounted. He went down to the 



THE TllANSVAAL AGAIN. 135 

truly, of Schermbrucker's Irregular Horse might be said with 
little variation of the other corps — Baker's, Whalley's, etc. 
Colonial men, such as Schermbrucker, Nettleton, Shepstone, 
Lonsdale, Blaine, Pickering, Wilson, and many others, 
distinguished themselves in the field, and it can be said 
with equal truth and justice that the volunteer force and 
levies, officers and men, proved most valuable auxiHaries. 

The Transvaal Kepublic had dragged along a sad exist- 
ence for many years, troubled constantly by native in- 
cursions h'om without, and debt, quarrelling, and discontent 
from within, when the Eev. Thomas F. Burgers was 
elected President in the year 1872. He was to revolutionize 
the entire country, and to make a new and improved 
Holland in Southern Africa. Gifted with certain talents, 
among which that of oratory was conspicuous, Burgers 
was deplorably deficient in a knov/ledge of men and busi- 
ness. His plans were utopian, visionary, and unsound. He 
caused hundreds of Boers to leave their adopted country, 
by forcing on them a system of education from which the 
teachings of religion were excluded ; contracted a loan of 
^300,000 for a railway from Delagoa Bay, which would 

river to find a hole where he could eventually defend himself ; Captain 
Moore then mounted behind the commandant, and after a fearful ride 
through the Zulus' bullets, which whistled about them like hailstones, they 
at last gained the camp. Without a minute's delay he started off with 
twenty mounted men to the relief of Larson (the name of the orderly). 
Alas ! the poor fellow had disappeared. All searching was in vain, not the 
vestige of a spoor could be detected. On May 20th Taf elberg was attacked. 
One hundred Zulus in well-entrenched positions poured in a deadly fire. 
Lieutenant Gown, of the 4th Eegiment, distinguished himself in a gallant 
charge, and the enemy were driven back into their caves and holes. — Extract 
from private letters. 



136 EISTOBY OF TEE ZULU WAB. 

have cost millions ; designed a fanciful coat of arms and flag; 
caused gold coins to be issued with his own likeness 
stamped upon them, and played such ''fantastic tricks before 
high heaven " as to help forward that crisis of banlo:uptcy 
and ruin from which it would have been very difficult, even 
by an exactly opposite course, to have saved the country. 

During the absence of the President in Europe, in 1875, 
Sekukuni, the principal chief of the Bapedi people, broke 
out in rebellion. In April, 1876, he was called upon to 
submit, but in place of doing so boldly claimed the larger 
portion of the Lydenburg and Pretoria districts. A com- 
mando then marched against him, and succeeded in taking 
'' Mathebi's Kop," which was grandiloquently styled the 
Gibraltar of South Africa. A subsequent attack upon 
Sekukuni's head kraal was a failure. The prosecution of 
the war was then entrusted to volunteers, and after a short 
time an inglorious peace was concluded. This treaty was 
only made to be broken, as it was repudiated and treated 
with contempt by Sekukuni. 

The peace of all British South Africa was seriously 
jeopardized by the weakness and fatuity of the Government 
of the Transvaal Eepublic. They were unable to conquer 
Sekukuni, and were so threatened by Cetywayo as to make 
an incursion by that potentate exceedingly probable. If 
the outworks of civilization were not looked after there 
would soon be serious danger to the fortress. Sir Theo- 
philus Shepstone was therefore appointed special Commis- 
sioner. He arrived at Pretoria in January, 1877, and an 
extraordinary session of the Volksraad was held in February. 



ANNEXATION, HIS TOBY OF. 137 

A radical reform, legislative, executive, and judicial, or the 
British flag, was the alternative laid before them. They 
chose the former, but remedies then came too late. The 
patient was incurable. President Burgers declared that 
a new constitution could not save them. On the 8th of 
March the Eaad broke up, and on the 12th of April Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone formally annexed the Transvaal 
territory to the British crown. It was, without doubt, in- 
comparably the best course for a bankrupt country, perfectly 
unable to cope either with its debts or its foes, but it is 
very doubtful whether it was the wisest course for the 
British Government. An immense burden was at once 
placed upon our shoulders, and the people furnished with 
a grievance easily fanned into discontent, and perhaps 
even into rebellion, by Hollanders and others who could 
make capital out of factious opposition and a trade out 
of revolution. If Sir Theophilus Shepstone had only 
waited long enough, the people would have begged upon 
their knees for protection and assistance when attacked 
by the enormous armies of the Zulu king. If we had 
intervened in such a crisis, we would have obtained 
the assistance — valuable assistance — of thousands of 
mounted burghers ; whereas, when we did fight really for 
the Transvaal, its inhabitants were so disgusted with what 
had transpired, as to render almost no assistance. There 
is no doubt that we managed the annexation of this country 
badly, and have been compelled to suffer for it. By a 
policy of delay, which would certainly have been less kind 
but incomparably more wise, the people would have been 



138 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

forced to come as supiDliants for protection and annexa- 
tion. Their lives and property when threatened by Cet}'- 
wayo, could have alone been saved by British intervention. 
It can certainly be argued, on the other side, that delay was 
X^articularly dangerous, and that if we had not at once 
established ourselves in the Transvaal, the Zulus would 
have lighted a fire which would have spread quickly through- 
out every native tribe, and have endangered the j)eace of 
all our settlements. Sir Theophilus Shepstone was in an 
excellent j)osition to judge of the necessity, and her 
Majesty's Government has uniformly upheld the policy 
adopted by him in annexing the Transvaal. 

Sekukuni had proved a thorn in the side of the Eepublic 
which they had really been unable to get rid of. The peace 
with this chief was quite illusory, and only betrayed weak- 
ness on the part of the Dutch. We cannot be surprised, 
therefore, that he soon resumed hostilities. Under British 
rule an expedition was, in 1878, sent against him, consist- 
ing of volunteers and native police, under the command of 
Captain Clark. This force was not strong enough, and 
portions of the 13th and 80th Kegiments, together with 
mounted infantry and volunteers, were despatched under 
Colonel Eowland. An unprecedented drought rendered 
operations almost impossible, and the expedition had to 
return, after leaving a jDortion of the 80th Eegiment to 
guard the passes. The great war with Cetywayo soon 
absorbed all our attention and efforts, therefore the attack 
on Sekukuni in his stronghold was postponed. It was 
reserved for Sir Garnet Wolseley to complete, late in 1879, 



DISCONTENT OF THE BOERS. 139 

that which had been commenced previous to the close of 
1878. The rebelKon of this native chief was specially one 
against the Eepublic of the Transvaal, and we had to take 
it over among the other heavy liabilities of that State. 

Sir Bartle Frere found it desirable to proceed to Natal 
early in 1879, and remained there during the crisis which 
resulted from the Isandhlwana disaster. On his return 
the High Commissioner passed through the Transvaal, and 
found that grumbling and discontent had been fomented 
into incipient rebellion. Mass meetings of the farmers 
were held, a people's committee was appointed, and a 
determination to recover their independence was freely 
expressed. With perfect firmness and straightforwardness, 
accompanied by admirable tact and patience, Sir Bartle 
Frere pointed out the real position of affairs. Another 
petition to the Imperial Government for restoration of 
their independence was sent through the High Commis- 
sioner, and in this way the outbreak of feeling was calmed 
for the time. Special envoys had been previously sent in 
vain to gain this object, and it really seemed hoping against 
hope to imagine that the Imperial Government could again 
allow the re-establishment of such a republic as that which 
had been found unable either to defend or govern the 
people whom it was supposed to rule. 



140 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 



CHAPTEK VIII. 

SIR BARTLE FEERE'S POLICY — CENSURE OF THE HOME 
GOVERNMENT — SLOW OPERATIONS — AFFAIR OF THE 
5th of JUNE — THE PRINCE IMPERIAL — HIS ARRIVAL 
— SERVICES — CHARACTER — DEATH — COURT-MARTIAL — 
FUNERAL RITES AND EMBARKATION OF THE BODY 
OF THE PRINCE IMPERIAL. 

So far back as the 9th of February, Lord Chelmsford had 
written to the Home Government, requesting that an 
officer of the rank of major-general should be sent out at 
once. Sir Bartle Frere concurred in that representation, 
and suggested that the officer selected should be fitted to 
succeed him in the position of High Commissioner. On 
the 19th of March, the Secretary of State blamed Sir Bartle 
Frere for not having aiforded her Majesty's Government 
an opportunity of considering the time as well as the 
manner of coming to issue — should it be necessary to come 
to issue — with the Zulu king. Sir Michael Hicks Beach 
says that this should have been done, although a favour- 
able season for the operations of British troops might have 
been lost, and the means of further arming and victualling 
his forces given to Cetywayo ; but the Secretary of State 
does not say, and of course could not say, that it should 
have been done at the imminent risk of the invasion and 



SIR BARTLE FRERE'S JUSTIFIGATION. 141 

destruction of our colony at Natal. Yet, after all, that is 
the true question. Sir Bartle Frere was specially charged, 
under his commission, with the protection of our own 
territory from native inroads, and was bound, in a great 
emergency, to make use of his immense delegated power in 
a prompt manner. Cetywayo, for two years, had been 
arranging for a great special blow upon the white people. 
He was couching ready to spring, and the High Commis- 
sioner knew it was absolutely necessary to act at once. 



* 



* The following information is from a colonist wliose character and ex- 
perience render him an unexceptionable witness. He says, "As a resident of 
many years in Zululand, I have had some experience and means of observa- 
tion. The year before the Commission sat at Eorke's Drift, the chief Usirayo 
built his head kraal at Usogexe, and a strong stone wall with loopholes 
round it ; and his people often told me that they hoped to use them against 
the white men. They often talked about war ; and I more than once re- 
monstrated with Usirayo and his people, telling them that they should take 
care not to bring about a war with 'abelungu' (the white men), as it would 
be worse for themselves, bat in vain, as they felt confident in their guns and 
their numbers. Cetywayo once sent an ox-hide to Sir T. Shepstone, and 
said, if he could count the hair on it, he would perhaps be able to form an 
idea of the number of the Zulu warriors; but I do not think the hide 
reached its destination. When the Commission was sitting at Eorke's Drift, 
Usirayo threatened to destroy the men and tents, if they came aci'oss the 
Buffalo to inspect the border line, near Usirayo' s head kraal, where you still 
see the stone heaps left since the beacons. I warned the Commission 
through a missionary, and the late Colonel Durnford noted it. The Zulus 
have bought their thousands of guns, for the purpose of using them against 
the whites ; have bought most of their ammunition with the same intention ; 
have engaged people from Basutoland to teach them to make powder ; and 
they have had a good deal of training in shooting. When Umbellini com- 
mitted his first massacre at Umpongolo — I think in 1877 — ^he went to the 
king, who adorned him with the usual sign of an ' iqawe ' (a plucky and 
brave fellow) ; so it seems to be little use in saying the king did not agree 
with the rascal in his doings, as somebody seems to mean. Why did the 
king allow Usirayo and his people to steal horses, cattle, and sheep from 
the Boers, year after year, without punishing them ? Why did he not at 
once punish Usirayo and his men, for crossing the border with arms last 



142 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

Hence the commencement of hostilities early in January 
within Zululand. If there had been no disaster at Isa- 
ndhlwana there would have been no censure. The ideas of 
her Majesty's Government with regard to conditions of peace 
will be found expressed in the Secretary of State's despatch, 
dated the 20th of March : — No further interference with the 
internal government is to be permitted than what is neces- 
sary for securing the peace and safety of the adjacent 
colonies. Duly authorized residents or agents to reside in 
the country. The Zulu military sj'stem to be discontinued, 
and missionaries to be admitted. These views necessarily 
subject to modification by future events. 

The battle of Ghinghelovo was fought upon the 2nd of 
April, and the battle of Ulundi, which will be referred to in 
due course, took place on the 4th of July. A complete 
chronicle of the operations of the different columns during 
the interval would be most tiresome and uninteresting. 
Such a narrative would be occupied with little raids upon 
the enemy, and of the enemy upon us ; occasional scares ; 

winter, and dragging away the poor women, who had fled for their lives ? 
Why has he tried to rouse other tribes against thes whites ? Why did he not 
care for the promises made at the coronation ? He wished for war, and he 
has got it ; and that which brought him to that madness is chiefly this : 
First, that he despised the Gospel, of which he knows a good deal, and 
would not allow his people to become Christians ; secondly, because the 
Christian Government would not allow him to make war upon other tribes, 
as his forefathers had done ; and thirdly, his strong belief that he should 
succeed in exterminating the whites, because he thought them only a hand- 
ful, and his own soldiers as plentiful as grass — which phrase he often uses 
with regard to them in conversation. Could he but get rid of the whites, 
he would soon subdue the black tribes — that has been his hope. And now 
we must he thankful to God, who sent such a man as Sir Bartle Frere to 
save the colonists from such a blow as Cetywayo intended to have aimed at 
them." 



jMISSION operations. 143 

the active operations from Wood's column in scomdng the 
country within forty miles ; captures and losses of cattle ; 
movement of troops ; fort-building ; camp life ; and, above 
all, the troubles, anxieties, and annoyances of the slow 
march towards the front and the difficulties of transport.* 
Messengers, ostensibly from the king, came in at various 
times to ask for peace ; but, viewed in the light of sub- 
sequent events, there is little doubt that such people 
were merely sent as spies, with the double object of putting 
us off our guard and obtaining information. An engage- 

* Paragraphs such as the following would frequently recur. A corre- 
spondent at the Lower Tugela writes, in May, " Knowing that the reinforce- 
ments have arrived, looking at and counting the forces now in the field, 
seeing the waggon road full of starving oxen which will very soon be unable 
to work, while the grass grows dry and scarce, and no sign is seen of the 
troops being ready to move, the talk in the papers of months being likely to 
pass before any operation can begin again, etc., really makes you sad and 
despairing, and causes you to fear that the whole Zulu war will be a failure. 
If any of the successes the English troops have had could have been followed 
up by speedy advances, the war would have been finished long ago ; but as 
it is, it gives the enemy plenty of time to collect and reorganize, thinking 
that the English, checked by some unknown diflBculties, must give it up at 
last altogether. If the campaign is to be directed from home it will be a 
failure, without doubt. Had the troops been able to advance a fortnight 
ago, we might now have seen something of the end of the war. This linger- 
ing cannot but have a bad effect upon the enemy, keeping up their hopes of 
an ultimate success. 

" Transport is more and more the bugbear. As we point out elsewhere, 
the simple fact is that the resources of the country are overstrained. Young 
and untrained cattle are, in many cases, being employed, at a very serious 
risk of loss. We are glad to learn, indirectly, that the proceedings of the 
commission of enquiry go to show that cost and difficulties of transport are 
at the bottom of the high charges complained of, and that the question is 
really one of supply and demand. The commissariat are now employing 
1800 waggons, and want 200 more very urgently. There is, we believe, 
much exaggeration in the statements put forth as to the exorbitant charges 
made upon the commissariat. However, we await the report of the com- 
mission with much interest." 



144 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

ment took place on the 5tli of June, between the enemy 
and a portion of Brigadier-General Wood's column, which 
requires more than mere passing mention. As an attack 
was expected on the line of march, reinforcements of 
cavalry (Lancers and Dragoons) as well as mounted natives 
were sent. Colonel BuUer, with two troops of Frontier 
Light Horse, and detachments of Baker's and McDonald's 
forces, together with Cochrane's Mounted Basutos, formed 
a scouting force in advance. Lord William Beresford 
assisted Colonel Buller as staff officer. The 90th Piegiment 
formed the advance-guard of the main column, the 80fcli 
was in the centre, and the 1-1 3th formed the rear-guard. 
Two large bodies of Zulus, about 1000 in number, were 
observed near the large kraal of Usirayo, and they seemed 
by their position to challenge an attack. Our men were 
ordered to advance at a trot, and the enemy retired into 
the belt of thornbush surrounding the base of the mountain, 
from which they poured a heavy fire. After half an hour's 
fusillade from each side the enemy's fire began to slacken. 
Lancers and Dragoons crossed the river, but, not being 
supported by artillery, were unable to dislodge the Zulus, 
and unfortunately lost Adjutant Frith, a young officer of 
great promise. Subsequently the troop of Natal mounted 
natives under Shepstone checkmated an attempt of the 
enemy to cut off our retiring vedettes. After this the Zulus 
contented themselves with shouting out defiance. The 
British troops returned, having previously burned the 
kraals and ascertained the approximate number of the 
enemy assembled to oppose the march of the column. It 



THE PRINCE IMPERIAL. 145 

is noteworthy that on this occasion the conduct of the 
regular troops and volunteers is described as manifesting 
both pluck and steadiness.* 

We must now advert to the career of the most distin- 
guished volunteer of the war, a prince who owned the 
most conspicuous dynastic name of the time — Napoleon 
Louis Bonaparte, Prince Imperial of France. Born in the 
purple and brought up amidst the greatest magnificence, 
the misfortunes of France became his own, and as an exile 
in England he studied at the Military College of Woolwich, 
where his success far surpassed even the sanguine expecta- 
tions of his friends. The war in South Africa seemed to 
offer a sphere in which the heir of conquerors could learn 
to conquer. As a soldier, the prince earnestly desired to 
attain practical knowledge of his profession ; as a Napoleon, 
he thirsted to distinguish himself by taking the sword each 
of his family had experienced to be the Key of Empire. 
Great Britain was the refuge of his family, and among the 
soldiers of Great Britain he felt at home. On the 27th of 
February, 1879, Prince Louis Napoleon received the sacra- 
ment of the Catholic Church before the Emperor's tomb at 
Chiselhurst, and then embarked in the steamer Danube for 
the theatre of war. His determination to go to Zululand 
was absolutely his own act, and his brave mother had to 
yield to his judgment what her own heart opposed. The 
prince was singularly calculated to win the affection of all. 
Pure, wise, and Christian, he had declared, ''If I am 

* Several correspondents of newspapers were under fire on this occasion, 
inclading those of the Standard, Telegraph, and Daily Chronicle. 



146 IIISTOEY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

restored to the throne of my father, I will have none near 
me whose truth, honour, and morality are not above sus- 
picion." As free from affectation as possible, he w^as gay, 
simple, affable, and so full of kindliness as to draw to him 
the hearts of all with whom he came in contact. On 
the voyage out he mixed with the passengers as one of 
them, joined in their games, and made himself beloved as 
much by the charm of his manner as the goodness of his 
nature.* Arrived at Cape Town, the prince became the 
guest of Lady Frere, the Governor being absent in Natal. 
He only remained there a few days, during the stay of the 
Danube, and went on in that steamer to Natal. The prince 
had received permission from the authorities to accompany 
the staff of the British army, and the Duke of Cambridge 
had written letters on this subject to Lord Chelmsford and 
to Sir Bartle Frere. 

With that hatred of ostentation and desire of giving as 
little trouble as possible which markedly actuated all the 
proceedings of the prince, he merely took one servant to the 
front, and even left his faithful companion, M. Uhlmann, 
at D'Urban. Towards the end of April indisposition pre- 
vented his joining the head-quarters staff of Lord Chelms- 
ford, but he was delayed only a few days in Pietermaritz- 
burg. It soon became evident to all his companions in 

* At one of tlie Cape ports, a passenger remarked tliat a young man he 
noticed could not have been the prince, as he saw him at the foot of a ladder, 
handing into a boat the children of a poor workman. At Cape Town the 
crowd mistook a handsomely dressed young exquisite for the Prince Imperial, 
and were surprised when a simply dressed, unassuming youth stepped out 
of the steamer and entered the Governor's carriage, which was in waiting. 



THE FRINCE IN ACTION. 147 

arms that the prince was the bravest of the brave. No 
idea of fear ever crossed his mind, and as this undaunted ' 
disposition was not tempered by experience, it sliould have 
induced greater watchfulness on the part of those men of 
high rank in the British army who were virtually his guar- 
dians during the campaign. In a reconnaissance which 
took place on Sunday, the 18th of May, the prince dis- 
played that coolness in the face of danger for which he was 
remarkable. On that day twenty-five men of Bettington's 
Horse, and the mounted Basutos under Colonel Harrison, 
accompanied by the Prince Imperial, crossed the Blood 
river, and subsequently descended into the Ityotyozi valley, 
where they were to meet Colonel Buller and 300 men. 
They mis-sed this force, however, and had to bivouac for 
the night near the south-east extremity of the Incqutu. 
No fires were allowed, and in shivering silence the night 
was passed, the enemy being expected at any moment. At 
daybreak they set off in quest of the road, and when 
approaching an ascent leading to a large kraal, were fired 
upon by sixty Zulus, who lined the ridge of rocks above. 
This fusillade was immediately returned, and without any 
hesitation Captain Bettington led straight up. The road 
was exceedingly steep and covered with boulders, but by a 
sudden charge the position was taken. Two Zulus were 
killed and seven horses captured. The prince evidently 
relished this engagement, and was as cool and collected 
throughout as if sitting in his study. In the captured kraal 
several relics of Isandhlwana were discovered, among which 
was a saddle of Colonel Black's, 2-24th, empty boxes of 
Martini-Henry, and an artillery forge bellows. 



148 EISTORY OF THE ZULU WAE. 

To show the narrow escapes which sometimes occurred, 
an incident that followed this little engagement may be 
related. Captain Bettington rode after three Zulus, two of 
whom were armed with guns and one with assegai. Think- 
ing he was unarmed, they allowed him to come within ten 
yards. He called out and fired his revolver ; two of the 
three loaded chambers missed fire, and one of the Zulus 
was just taking aim with his gun at a distance of only 
fifteen yards, when the third chamber exploded and the 
man fell dead. The other two ran away, and the remainder 
of the patrol came up shortly afterwards. 

The prince was exceedingly fond of real work, and of 
sharing every privation and danger of his comrades. He 
was no feather-bed soldier. Anxious always to go out with 
patrols and on reconnaissance duty, it would have seemed 
ungracious to check his ardour, but his own daring and 
utter absence of fear made it specially necessary that men 
of tried experience should accompany him. At the com- 
mencement of June the Prince Imperial, attached to the 
Quartermaster-General's department, was at General 
Newdigate's camp. He had applied for and obtained leave 
to go on ahead of the division to the site of the new camp 
about to be formed. On the morning of the 1st of June, 
the reconnoitring party set out, consisting of the Prince 
Imperial, Lieutenant Carey of H.M. 98th Eegiment, six 
selected men of Bettington's Horse, and one Kafir. Six 
mounted Basutos had been ordered to join the party, but 
they were left behind. The spot to which they were about 
to proceed was familiar to the prince, and he was aware 



DEATH OF THE FBINCE. 149 

that it was in the vicinity of Lord Chelmsford's camio on 
one side, and of General Wood's on the other. The party 
started at half-past nine o'clock, and when they arrived at 
the neck of the Incenci mountain were joined by some 
officers, who, after riding some distance with them, went off 
towards the left, in the direction of General Wood's camp. 
x\fter crossing a rivulet which forms a tributary to the 
Ityotyozi river, they reached a large flat-topped hill, and 
there the prince, ordering the men to slacken girths for a 
little, took a sketch of the country.* 

Shortly after the march was resumed, the prince pointed 
out the kraal from which he had been fired upon on a 
previous occasion, and turned off to examine another one, 
which was found empty. Immediately afterwards the party 
descended towards a third kraal, about a mile further on, 
as the prince observed a small river — the Mbazani — at 
which the horses could be watered, and where coffee could 
be made for the men. The kraal consisted of five huts, with 
a small stone enclosure, and was distant about 200 j^ards 
from the river. In front there was an open space, on which 
fires for cooking had been made, but between the kraal and 
the river tambookie grass grew, five or six feet in height, 
with mealies and Kafir corn interspersed. The party halted 
on the open space, and the prince gave the order to ''off 
saddle " for an hour. No sign of life was visible, excej)t 
where two or three dogs furtively ran from the intruders. 
Water was obtained, coffee made, the horses were turned 

* The prince had already become noted for skill in sketching, and for 
remarkable ability in recognizing the capabilities of positions. 



150 HIS TOBY OF TEE ZULU WAB. 

into the grass and grain crops, while with a feeling ef 
perfect security all lay stretched, resting, on the ground. 

The hour quickly passed, and during that time, 
unknown and unsuspected, fifty Zulus crawled in ambush 
preparing to make a spring. The position of the ground 
was most advantageous for their purpose. A deep donga 
formed excellent cover, and out of that they crept along the 
water's edge, completely screened by the rank vegetation. 
It was while they were thus concealed that one of them was 
seen by the Kafir sent to bring water to the Prince Impe- 
rial's party. The Zulu burst out of his ambush and fled. 
The Kafir returned and reported what he had seen. Mean- 
while the prince, looking at his watch, remarked, "You 
can give your horses ten minutes more." What the Kafir 
reported had, however, made every one anxious to go, and 
the horses were caught and saddled. All stood ready, and 
the prince examined the bit of his horse for a few moments. 
Then came the words, " Prepare to mount ! Mount ! " 
and almost at the same moment a volley fired from forty 
rifles, at a distance of twenty yards, crashed among them. 
At this time the party w^ere standing in line, close to their 
horses, with their backs to the kraal and their faces tui'ned 
eastward, the prince being in front and nearest to the 
Zulus. Then with a tremendous cry, '' Usutu ! " and *' Lo, 
the English cowards ! " the savages rushed on. The horses 
immediately swerved, and some broke away. An undoubted 
panic seized the party ; every one who could spring on his 
horse mounted and galloped for his life. There was no 
thought nor idea of standing fast and resisting this sudden 



THE PRINCE'S HEROISM. 151 

attack. The prince was unwounclecl, but unable to mount 
his charger, which was sixteen hands high, and always 
difficult to mount. On this occasion the horse became so 
frightened by the firing and sudden stampede, as to rear 
and prance in such a manner as to make it impossible for 
the prince to gain the saddle. Many of the others saw the 
difficulty, but none waited or tried to give the least assist- 
ance. One by one they rushed their horses past, Private 
Le Tocq exclaiming as he went by, lying across his saddle, 
** Depechez-vous, s'il vous plait, monsieur." The prince, 
making no reply, strained every nerve, but, alas ! in vain, to 
gain the back of his horse, holding his stirrup-leather with 
his left hand and the saddle with his right. With the help 
of the holster he made one desperate effort, but the holster 
partially gave way, and it must have been then that the 
horse trod upon him, and galloped off, leaving his master 
prostrate on the ground. The prince then regained his 
feet and ran after his friends, who were far in advance. 
Twelve or thirteen Zulus were at this time only a few feet 
behind him. The prince then turned round, and, sword in 
hand, faced his pursuers. From the first he had never 
called for help, and now died bravely with his face to 
the foes, fighting courageously to the last. It is thought 
that the Zulus hurled their assegais at him, and that he 
quickly fell dead, pierced through the eye by a mortal 
wound. 

In death, as in life, the Prince Imperial of France 
behaved as a brave soldier, the worthy heir of a great cause 
and a true son of France. No torture or pain accompanied 



152 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

his last moments. His first '\;^'ound was mortal, and the 
nohle and beloved prince in his last moments, as during his 
entire career, did nothing to sully the name he bore or the 
country which gave him birth. 

Two of the troopers were shot. One of them, Eogers, 
never reached his horse, and received his death wound 
when standing by a hut, rifle in hand, preparing to defend 
himself. Trooper Abel was shot at the first discharge — at 
all events, before he could reach the donga. The Kafir 
who had accompanied them and had brought the water for 
coffee, was quickly surrounded and killed. The rest of the 
party galloped off at full speed. Lieutenant Carey and 
two others crossed the donga at a difficult place, while the 
others, who were followed by the prince, took an easier 
route. The direction taken by the fugitives was General 
Wood's camp. Lieutenant Carey, shortly after starting, 
called out, ''Keep to the left, and cross the donga, and 
rally behind it." At the same time he noticed Zulus 
apparently endeavouring to cut off their retreat. On a 
rise a little further on, he looked round, and one of the 
troopers, who happened to be near him, called attention 
to the prince's horse galloping away. In reply to a ques- 
tion, the man said it was useless to return. The other 
troopers were then 200 yards distant. Lieutenant Carey 
shouted out to them to keep to the left, and all made the 
best of their way to the camp, which was reached at 
6.30 p.m. 

It ought specially to be noted that the attack of the 
Zulus was a thorough surprise by an overwhelming force. 



LIEUTENANT CARETS REPORT. 153 

No sentries had been posted, nor precautions of any kind 
taken, and at the time of the attack no carbines were 
loaded. Lieutenant Carey says that he did not notice the 
prince after he saw him mounting, and that he did not 
perceive any fighting when he looked round. 

General Wood and Colonel Buller met Lieutenant Carey 
and the other survivors of the party. These officers were 
at the time about six miles from camp, and four or five 
from Isandhlwana mountain, when they saw five white men 
riding as if for their lives under the hills on the right. So 
soon as the fugitives saw the general and his escort, they 
came up to them at full gallop, and told the dreadful news. 
By means of field-glasses three horses were seen being led 
off at a distance of about seven miles, accompanied by 
twenty or thirty Zulus on foot. It was then nearly five 
in the afternoon, and too late to do anything. On the 
following morning (Whit Monday) the advanced guard of 
Natal Native Contingent and Kaaff's Horse pushed forward 
from Wood's camp to the scene of the disaster. They were 
joined there by squadrons of Lancers and Dragoons from 
General Newdigate. The search for the bodies was not 
a long one. That of poor Eogers was first found, lying 
stark naked, riddled with assegai stabs and with a gash 
in the abdomen. Thirty yards distant was that of Abel 
in the same condition. A wound in his right hand seemed 
to show that he had fought for his life at close quarters. 
Thirty yards or so from this, and in the donga, lay the 
corpse of the Prince Imperial. Surgeon-Major Scott, 
specially deputed for the purpose by Lord Chelmsford, 



154 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

took charge of the body and proceeded to examine it. 
There was one longish wound on the right breast, which 
was evidently mortal ; an assegai hadjpierced the right eye, 
and had at once either caused death or x)aralysis to pain. 
There were two wounds in the left side, and less serious 
ones all over the u^Dper part of the chest. A long gash 
in the abdomen exposed the intestines, but had not injured 
them. Bound the neck was a small gold chain, to which 
was attached a medal and Agnus Dei. These the Zulus 
had not dared to touch, as they look upon all such articles 
as charms to be dreaded. The body of the prince was then 
conveyed to camp, and those of the troopers were bmied 
with religious ceremony. 

It is now necessary to furnish the evidence taken at the 
court-martial and the statement of Lieutenant Carey. The 
preliminary report was as follows :■ — 

'' The Court is of oj)inion that Lieutenant Carey did not 
understand the position in which he stood towards the 
prince, and, as a consequence, failed to estimate aright 
the responsibility which fell to his lot. Colonel Harrison 
states that the senior combatant officer. Lieutenant Carey, 
D.A.Q.M.G., was, as a matter of course, in charge of the 
party, whilst on the other hand Carey says, when alluding 
to the escort, * I did not consider I had any authority over 
it, after the precise and careful instructions of Lord Chelms- 
ford as to the position the prince held.' As to his being 
invariably accompanied by an escort in charge of an officer, 
the Court considers that the possibility of such a difference 
of opinion should not have existed between two officers of 



THE COURT-MARTIAL. 155 

the same department. The Court is of opinion that Carey 
is much to blame for having proceeded on the duty in 
question with a portion only of the escort detailed by 
Colonel Harrison. The Court cannot admit the irresponsi- 
bility for this on the part of Carey, inasmuch as he took 
steps to obtain the escort, and failed in so doing. More- 
over, the fact that Harrison was present upon the Itelezi 
range gave him the opportunity of consulting him on the 
matter, of which he failed to avail himself. The Court, 
having examined the ground, is of opinion that the selec- 
tion of the kraal where a halt was made and the horses 
off saddled, surrounded as it was by cover for an enemy, 
and adjacent to difficult ground, showed a lamentable want 
of military prudence. The Court deeply regrets that no 
effort was made after the attack to rally the escort, and 
to show a front to the enemy, whereby the possibility of 
aiding those who had failed to make good their retreat 
might have been ascertained. — Signed by General Marshall ; 
Colonel Malthus, 94th Eegiment"; Major Le Grice, E.A." 

On this report a court-martial was summoned by Lord 
Chelmsford, for the trial of Lieutenant Carey, for having 
misbehaved before the enemy on the 1st June, 1879, when 
in command of an escort in attendance on the prince, who 
was making reconnaissances in Zululand, in having, when 
the prince and escort w^ere attacked by the enemy, galloped 
away, and in not having attempted to rally them or other- 
wise defend the prince. The Court, under the presidency 
of Colonel Glyn, consisted of Colonels Whitehead, Courtney, 
Harness, Major Bouverie, and Major Anstruther. 



156 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

Judge -Advocate Brander prosecuted, and Captain 
Crookenden, E.A., was for the defence. 

When the Court opened the plan of the ground was 
proved. 

Corporal Grubb said the prince gave the order '' Off 
saddle" at the kraal, and "Prepare to mount." The 
prince mounted. After the volley, he saw Carey putting 
spurs to his horse, and he did the same. He saw Abel fall, 
and Eogers trying to get a shot at the Zulus. Le Tocq 
passed him, and said, "Put spurs to your horse, boy; the 
prince is down ! " He looked round and saw the prince 
under his horse. A short time after the prince's horse 
came up, and he (Grubb) caught it. No orders were given 
to rally. 

Le Tocq was called, and said : The prince told the 
natives to search the kraals, and finding no one there they 
off saddled. At the volley, he mounted, but, dropping his 
carbine, stopped to pick it up. In remounting he could 
not get his leg over the saddle. He passed the prince, and 
said in French, "Hasten to mount your horse." The 
prince did not answer. He saw the prince's horse treading 
on his leg. The prince was in command of the party. 
He believed Carey and the prince would have passed on 
different sides of a hut in fast flight, and it was possible 
that Carey might have failed to see that the prince was 
in difficulty. It was 250 yards from where he saw the 
prince down to the spot where he died. 

Trooper Cochrane was called, and said : The prince was 
not in the saddle at the time of mounting. He saw, about 



EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 157 

fifty yards off, the prince running down the donga with 
fourteen Zulus in close pursuit. Nothing was done to help 
him. He heard no orders given, and did not tell Carey 
what he had seen until some time after. He was an 
old soldier. He did not think any rally could have been 
made. 

The Court then adjourned to the next day. On re- 
assembling, the first witness called was — 

Sergeant Willis, who stated that he had seen Trooper 
Eogers lying on the ground by the side of his horse, close 
to the kraal, as he left the spot. He thought he saw the 
prince wounded at the same time that Trooper Abel threw 
up his arms. He thought the prince might have been 
dragged to the place where he was found after death, and 
that a rally might have been made twenty yards beyond 
the donga. 

Colonel Harrison being called, stated that Carey was 
senior combatant officer, and must therefore have been in 
command of the party. Carey volunteered to go on the 
reconnaissance to verify certain points of his sketch. The 
prince was ordered to go to report more fully on the ground. 
He had given the prince into Carey's charge. 

Examined by the Court, Colonel Harrison stated that 
when the prince was attached to his department he was not 
told to treat him as a royal personage in the matter of 
escort, but as any other officer, taking due precaution 
against any possible danger. 

Dr. Scott (the prince's medical attendant) was then 
called, and stated that the prince was killed by eighteen 



158 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

assegai wounds, any five of wliich wonlcl have been fatal. 
There were no bullet Vv^ounds. The prince died where the 
body was found. 

This closed the case for the prosecution. The defence 
called again — 

Colonel Harrison, who testified to Carey's abilities as a 
staff officer, and said he had every confidence in him. 

Colonel Bellairs was also called, and stated that it was 
in consequence of the occurrence of the 1st June that 
Carey had been deposed from his staff appointment the day 
previous to his trial. , 

Lieutenant Carey here submitted that his case had 
been prejudged, and that he had been punished before his 
trial. 

The following is Lieutenant Carey's statement : — 

'' On the 31st May, I was informed by Colonel Harrison, 
A.Q.M.G., that the Prince Imperial was to start on the 
1st June, to ride over the road selected by me for the 
advance of the column, for the purpose of selecting a 
camping ground for the 2nd June. I suggested at once 
that I should be allowed to go with him, as I knew the 
road and wanted to go over it again for the purpose of 
verifying certain points. To this Colonel Harrison con- 
sented, reminding me that the ^Drince was going at his own 
request to do this work, and that I was not to interfere 
with him in any way. For our escort, six Europeans of 
Bettington's Horse and six Basutos were ordered. Betting- 
ton's men were paraded at 9 a.m., but owing to some mis- 
understanding the Basutos did not turn up, and, the prince 



LIEUTENANT CAEEY. 159 

being desirous of proceeding at once, we went without 
them. On arriving at the ridge between Itelezi and In- 
cenci, I suggested waiting for them, but the prince repHed, 
'Oh no; we are quite strong enough,' or words to that 
effect. We proceeded on our reconnaissance from there, 
halting about half an hour on a high hill overlooking the 
Ityotyozi for the prince to sketch. From here the country 
was visible for miles, and no sign of the enemy could be 
discovered. We then descended into the valley, and, 
entering a kraal, off saddled, knee-haltering our horses. 
We had seen the deserted appearance of the country, and, 
though the kraal was to the right surrounded by mealies, 
we thought there was no danger in encamping. If any 
blame is attributable to any one for this, it is to me, as I 
agreed with the prince that we were perfectly safe. I had 
been over this ground twice before, and seen no one, and 
the brigade-major of the cavalry brigade had ridden over 
it with only two or three men, and laughed at me for 
taking so large an escort. We had with us a friendly 
Zulu, who, in answer to my inquiries, said no Zulus were 
about. I trusted in him, but still kept a sharp look-out, 
telescope in hand. In about an hour — that is, at 3.40 p.m. 
— the prince ordered us to saddle w^. We went into the 
mealies to catch our horses, but took at least ten minutes 
saddling. W^hile doing so, the Zulu guide informed us he 
had seen a Zulu in the distance, but as he did not appear 
concerned, I saw no danger. The prince was saddled up 
first, and, seeing him ready, I mounted, the men not being 
quite ready. The prince then asked if they were all ready ; 



160 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

they answered in the affirmative, and he gave the word 
' Prepare to mount.' At this moment I tm-ned round, and 
saw the prince with his foot in the stirrup, looking at the 
men. Presently I heard him say, * Mount,' and turning 
to the men, saw them vault into their saddles. At this 
moment my eyes fell on about twenty black faces in the 
mealies, twenty to thirty yards off, and I saw puffs of 
smoke and heard a rattling volley, followed by a rush, with 
shouts of ' Usutu ! ' There was at once a stampede. Two 
men rushed past me, and as every one appeared to be 
mounted, I dug the spurs into my horse, which had already 
started of his own accord. I felt sure no one was wounded 
by the volley, as I heard no cry, and I shouted out, ' Keep 
to the left, and cross the donga, and rally behind it ! ' At 
the same time I saw more Zulus in the mealies on our left 
flank, cutting off our retreat. I crossed the donga behind 
two or three men, but could only get beyond one man, 
the others having ridden off. Kiding a few hundred yards 
on to the rise, I stopped and looked round. I could see 
the Zulus after us, and saw that the men were escaping 
to the right, and that no one appeared on the other side 
of the donga. The man beside me then drew my atten- 
tion to the prince's horse, which was galloping away on the 
other side of the donga, saying, ^I fear the prince is 
killed, sir.' I immediately said, *Do you think it is any 
use going back ? ' The trooper pointed to the mealies on 
our left, which appeared full of Kafirs, and said, 'He is 
dead long ago, sir: they assegai wounded men at once.' 
I considered he had fallen near the kraal, as his horse was 



GRIEF IN NATAL. 161 

going from that direction, and it was useless to sacrifice 
more lives. I had but one man near me, the others being 
some 200 yards down the valley. I accordingly shouted 
to them to close to the left, and rode on to gain a drift 
over the Tombokala river, saying to the man at my side, 
' We will keep back towards General Wood's camp, not 
returning the same way we came, and then come back with 
some Dragoons to get the bodies.' We reached camp about 
6.30 p.m. When we were attacked our carbines were un- 
loaded, and, to the best of my belief, no shots were fired. 
I did not see the prince after I saw him mounting, but he 
was mounted on a swift horse, and I thought he was close 
to me. Besides the prince, we lost two troopers, as well 
as the friendly Zulu. Two troopers have been found be- 
tween the donga and the kraal, covered with assegai 
wounds. They must have fallen in the retreat and been 
assegaied at once, as I saw no fighting when I looked 
round." 

A shudder of horror and reproachful regret passed 
through Natal. It was sorrowful that the prince should 
be kiUed, but doubly lamentable that he should fall by the 
assegais of savages when his comrades deserted him. In 
the army the feeling of indignation and regret was par- 
ticularly strong; and, however desirous men felt to do 
justice, it was scarcely possible for human nature to be 
entirely free from prejudice in forming a judgment with 
regard to the conduct of those who had been with the 
prince on the fatal day of his death. The court-martial 
condemned Lieutenant Carey, and sent him home under 

M 



162 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB, 

arrest. But a reaction of opinion subsequently took 
place. The Empress interceded for the unfortunate man, 
and our own Queen was pleased to order his release from 
arrest. 

The death of the Prince Imperial was felt as a personal 
grief by every colonist. It spread gloom throughout the 
country, and recalled vividly the shock that followed the 
disaster at Isandhlwana. The generous ardour with which 
the prince had given his services to the cause of the 
colonists seemed to have received a pitiful return. The 
heir of an Empire was dead, and the news must go hence 
to a widowed mother, who had made England her home. 
Every possible manifestation of grief and respect was paid. 
The military and the military authorities vied with the 
civil authorities and the people in doing honour to the 
illustrious dead. Natal went into mourning. When the 
corpse arrived at Pietermaritzburg, people of all classes 
crowded into the streets to show their respect by joining 
the procession. The Times of Natal tells us that on the 
8th of June, at 1.15 p.m., a gun was fired from Fort Napier, 
announcing that the body had arrived within two miles of 
the city, and by two o'clock a number which must have 
exceeded 3000 had assembled at the place of rendezvous on 
the Commercial Koad. Here the procession was formed, 
the military headed by Major-General the Hon. H. H. 
Clifford, Inspector-General of Communications, on the one 
side ; and the civilians, headed by his Excellency Sir 
Henry Bulwer, the Lieutenant-Governor of the colony, 
on the other. 



TEE BODY BROVGET TO NATAL. 163 

Thousands of people lined the way up to the place 
where the procession had to fall in, and some time was 
taken before all were in their places in the order above 
indicated. Following the civil authorities, came the City 
Guard, some sixty strong, under Colonel Mitchell as 
general leader, and J". H. Spence as district leader ; and 
after them came a large number of the Odd Fellows and 
Foresters in the funeral insignia of their order. After this 
the general public followed, all in mourning. 

The arrangements being completed, amid the solemn 
booming of the minute guns, and the tolling of the church 
bells, the gun-carriage bearing the coffin was seen slowly 
coming down the hill, accompanied by the escort of regulars 
and mounted police which had come with it. As it 
approached the military fell into their places, and there 
was a hush which spoke, more eloquently than any words, 
the feelings of the vast concourse of people as the body of 
the late prince approached. As the cortege passed every 
hat was raised in respect, and the military presented arms. 
The coffin was wrapped in a large tricolour, and upon it 
was a helmet and sword, together with wreaths of roses 
and camellias, and a beautiful cross of violets ; while the 
grey charger, draped with a black pall, with the letter 
" N " on the corners, and with the boots reversed, according 
to military custom, followed. The procession then formed 
in the order given above, Major-General Clifford and the 
Lieutenant-Governor being immediately in front, while 
behind it were Fathers De Lacy and Baudry, the latter of 
whom had just come down with the body. In the proces- 



16i HISTOBY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

sion were observed many clergj^ of the English Church and 
of other denominations, among them the Eight Eeverend 
Bishop Colenso, the Eight Eeverend Bishop Macrorie, 
Dean Green, Archdeacon Usherwood, the Eev. G. M. 
St. M. Eitchie, chaplain to the forces, etc., etc. The two 
valets of the late prince immediately followed the Catholic 
clergy. The pall-bearers were Captain Willoughby, 21st 
Scots Fusiliers ; Captain Fox, E.A., D.A.A.G. ; Major 
Eussell, 12th Lancers; Lieutenant-Colonel East, 57th Foot, 
D.Q.M.G. ; Lieutenant-Colonel Steward, E.E. ; Colonel 
Eeilly, C.B., E.H.A. The personal staff in attendance upon 
Major-General Clifford were Captain Fox, E.A., D.A.A.G., 
and Lieutenant Westmacott, 77th Eegiment, A.D.C. 
General Bisset was also present, in full uniform. Major 
Spalding, D.A.A.G., acted as adjutant-general, in the 
absence of Colonel Bellairs. Amongst the civil servants 
were the Attorney-General, Hon. M. H. Gallwey; the 
Colonial Treasurer, Hon. Mr. Polkinghorne ; the Surveyor- 
General, Mr. P. C. Sutherland, M.D. ; the Mayor of Maritz- 
burg, Mr. W. Francis, and the Town Councillors ; Mr. W. 
Akerman, M.L.C., and Mr. C. C. Griffin, M.L.C. ; and 
all the heads of departments who were not either absent 
from Maritzburg or prevented from being present by 
sickness. 

The Maritzburg Eifles assembled in full number, under 
Lieutenant and Adjutant Scoones, and their band played 
the Dead March in '' Saul," adding greatly to the solemnity 
of the procession. It marched slowly up Commercial 
Koad to the corner of Church Street, up which it turned, 



LORD CLIFFORD'S SPECIAL ORDEB. 165 

and then wheeled along Chapel Street into Longmarket 
Street, arriving at the Koman Catholic School at about 
ten minutes before four. Here the coffin was taken from 
the gun-carriage by the pall-bearers, and conveyed into 
the chapel, followed by as many of the procession as the 
building would hold, the mihtary who were on the ground 
being formed into two lines outside the building. The 
Eev. Father Barrett met the procession at the door, and, 
together with Father De Lacy and Father Baudry, 
officiated, reading a short service over the coffin ; all 
present appearing deeply affected. The military were then 
drawn w^ outside the building, and his Excellency and 
other distinguished personages passed through the lines, 
and the doors of the building were then closed upon the 
mortal remains of the late lamented prince. 

The following special order had been issued by General 
Clifford :— 

* ' Wednesday, June 4th. 

" The Inspector-General of Lines of Communication and 
Base has received from his Excellency the Lieutenant- 
General commanding official confirmation of the calamity 
which has befallen the forces under his command, by the 
death, on duty in the field, of the late gallant young soldier 
the Prince Imperial, Louis Napoleon, who, having in his 
military training been associated with the British army, 
came out to this country to take part in the Zulu campaign. 

" The Inspector-General feels that he is carrying out the 
wishes of his Excellency the Lieutenant-General command- 
ing, now in Zululand, by thus recording the feelings of deep 



166 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

sorrow and sympathy, experienced by every officer and 
man whose duty keeps him at his post in the colony, with 
the loss thus sustained. 

"The body of the unfortunate prince will arrive here 
probably on Monday next, the 9th inst., en route to England. 
Arrangements will be made to receive it with all due respect 
and expression of sorrow." 

From the capital city of Pietermaritzburg, the body of 
the prince was conveyed to D'Urban, the seaport, and at 
the latter place the following eloquent special order was 
issued by the Assistant Adjutant-General.* 

" lOth June, 1879. 

" The mortal remains of Prince Louis Napoleon will be 
carried to-morrow, at half-past 9 a.m., from the Eoman 
Catholic Church, in D'Urban, to the Wharf, at Port Natal, 
for embarkation in H.M.S. Boadicea to England. 

" In following the coffin which holds the body of the late 
Prince Imperial of France, and paying to his ashes the 
final tribute of sorrow and of honour, the troops in garrison 
will remember : — 

"First. That he was the last inheritor of a mighty 
name, and of a great military renown. 

" Second. That he was the son of England's firm ally 
in dangerous days. 

" Third. That he was the sole child of a widowed 
Empress, who is now left throneless and childless, in exile, 
on English shores. 

* Major W. F. Butler, author of ' The Great Lone Land." 



FUNERAL CEREMONIES AT B' URBAN. 167 

"Deepening the profound sorrow, and the solemn reve- 
rence that attaches to these memories, the troops will also 
remember that the Prince Imperial of France fell fighting 
as a British soldier. 

" W. F. Butler, 
" A. A. -General, Base of Operations. 

" D'Urban, Natal, South Africa." 

The Eoman Catholic Church at D'Urban was trans- 
formed into a chapelle ardente, and the coffin remained 
there all night after its arrival. Solemn requiem Mass was 
celebrated the next morning. The Natal Mercury tells us 
that by nine o'clock an immense crowd of persons had 
assembled outside the church where the gun-carriage was 
in waiting, and every arrangement had been made for 
speedily forming the procession after the ceremony was 
over. The principal object of interest outside was the 
grey horse belonging to the late prince, which he had 
purchased from a D'Urban gentleman, and the groom in 
charge of it was busily engaged in answering questions put 
to him with regard to the late prince. The horse was 
saddled, and in just the same condition as it was when it 
came back riderless to the camp. The troops outside 
waiting to take part in the procession numbered altogether 
700 ; the whole, as on the previous day, being under the 
command of Major Huskisson, commandant of the garrison. 
Every regiment doing service in South Africa was repre- 
sented, including even the Dragoons and Lancers. At 
a quarter to ten the doors of the church were thrown 
open, and the coffin was brought to the gun-carriage, the 



^ 

» 



168 EI8T0JRY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

honour of carrying it having been conferred on Captain 
Haynes (staff paymaster), Captain Granville (commissariat), 
Captain Young (commissariat). Captain Brunker, Com- 
missary Marsh (ordnance), and Surgeon-Major Leslie. 
The procession was constituted as follows : — 

g' . The band. ? 

o| . The body. ^^ 

r_, r- Chief mourners. *;i §* 

^ Military. ' ^ 



Friendly societies. 

B Public bodies. Q 

^ I-". 

Town guard. ^ 

rS Consular oflBcers. g 



DQ 



-1-= 



Heads of departments. 



c3 



02 

O 

n 
I 

Pi 



rt Archdeacon and clergy. g 

t>. Members executive and legislative. P* 

g Mayor and Town Council. ►§ 

Public schools. 
The public. 



Having proceeded to the Point, the coffin was conveyed 
by a small steamer to H.M.S. Boaclicea, where it was taken 
on board and hoisted into the hold of the vessel amid all 
the reverent marks of respect so fitting for the occasion. 
Monsieur Deleage, correspondent of the Paris Figaro^ 
with two of the prince's attendants, accompanied the 

remains. 

We will conclude this sad chapter of the history of the 
Zulu war by inserting a copy of the address signed in 
Natal, expressing deep sympathy with the widowed 
Empress ; — 



LETTER OF CONDOLENCE. 169 

" A Sa Majeste rTmperatrice Eugenie. 
" Madame, 

" Les sous-signes, habitants de Natal, viennent 

respectueusement exprimer a votre Majeste Imperiale leurs 

sentiments de douloureuse sympathie, a I'occasion de la 

mort du jeune et vaillant prince votre fils, tombe a la 

fleur de I'age, victime de ses sentiments de devouement a 

une noble cause. 

"En presence d'une telle infortune qui cause tant de 
regrets et emporte de si brillantes esperances a votre coeur 
de mere, deja si eprouve, tons les colons de Natal, sont 
emus d'un meme et unique sentiment de profonde afflic- 
tion dont cette respectueuse adresse, n'est que la faible 
expression. 

" Nous prions Dieu, Madame, de vouloir bien repandre 
sur votre Majeste les consolations que lui seul pent donner. 
En effet, votre douleur est si grande, qu'il semble impossible 
a notre nature d'en supporter le poids. 

" Nous avons I'honneur d'etre, avec le plus profond 
respect 

" de votre Majeste Imperiale, 
" Les tres humbles et obeissants serviteurs." 



170 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

THE POLICY OF SIR BARTLE FRERE — SLOW ADVANCE OF 
THE BRITISH COLUMNS — APPOINTMENT AND ARRIVAL 
OF SIR GARNET WOLSELEY — BATTLE OF ULUNDI — 
RESIGNATION AND DEPARTURE OF LORD CHELMS- 
FORD. 

The policy of Sir Bartle Frere received the hearty and 
most earnest support of those people who were best 
qualified to judge of it, the colonists of Natal and the 
Cape Colony. At large and enthusiastic public meetings 
held in every town of any consequence unanimous votes of 
approval and sympathy were passed. In the city of Cape 
Town a great mass meeting declared unanimously for Sir 
Bartle Frere. Graham's Town expressed itself in the same 
manner. Port Elizabeth notified its fullest confidence in 
his Excellency the High Commissioner, " being persuaded 
that the policy he is seeking to carry out in South Africa 
is eminently calculated to secure the permanent tranquillity 
of the country and the welfare of its inhabitants. King 
William's Town heartily sympathizes with his Excellency, 
and expresses its entire confidence." Graaff-Eeinet, "having 
heard with the greatest satisfaction the manner in which 
the metropolis has come forward to approve of the policy 



ANXIETY OF TEE COLONISTS. 171 

of his Excellency Sir Bartle Frere, cordially endorses the 
Cape Town resolution." Swellendam recorded its '' satis- 
faction with the well-timed movement in Cape Town;" 
George Town notified its approval ; Queen's Town expressed 
its cordial sympathy and confidence ; Kimherley declared 
strongly in favour of Sir Bartle Frere, and, of course, so 
did Pietermaritzburg, D'Urban, and other towns in Natal. 
In fact, from east to west, from north to south, all classes, 
all creeds, all nationalities, were unanimous in upholding 
the only policy which they considered could serve South 
Africa. Bishop Colenso in Natal, and several other able 
men in Cape Town, held different views, but then their 
number was so very small as to detract in a very small 
measure from the unanimity of the expression of feeling. 
At these public meetings hearty votes of thanks were also 
passed to her Majesty's Government for having sent out 
reinforcements. 

There can be no doubt whatever that during April, 
May, and June, there was a very dissatisfied feeling in the 
colonies, as well as at home, with regard to the exceeding 
tardiness of operations. The small irritating raids made 
at different times upon Zululand cannot be styled success- 
ful, and resulted in reprisals which were calculated to have 
a demoralizing effect upon our own natives. If Colonel 
Wood had been reasonably reinforced and allowed to go 
forward, there is good reason to believe that he could have 
finished the war. Up to the 18th of May his troops had 
been successful in seven skirmishes and one pitched battle. 
They had burnt the great Maquilizine military kraal, and 



172 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

captured 9000 head of cattle. This light brigade was 
admirably adaj)ted for Zulu warfare. Pearson's column 
on the coast had also performed admirable service. The 
extraordinary difficulties and delays of transport under the 
new organization in the second campaign have been already 
referred to. Lord Chelmsford, writing to the Secretary of 
State from Newcastle, Natal, on the 14th of May, states 
that the troops are in position, only waiting for sufficient 
supplies and transport to advance. From what the general 
commanding had learnt from General Clifford,* he feared 
that it would be out of his power to advance until the 1st 
of June. Major- General Crealock, commanding the first 
(coast) division, reported that he hoped to have two months' 
supplies in three weeks' time on the Inyezane river. The 
posts on the northern line had all been visited, and head- 
quarters fixed at Utrecht, until such time as the second 
division, under General Newdigate, was ready to advance. 
Shortly afterwards, information was received that the 
border tribes were massing at Babincinqu and Inyayene, 
two points near the Blood river, and that the Zulus had 
sent for reinforcements to Ulundi. Eest and security for 
two entire months had now been given to the enemy, and 
their determination to continue the war was perfectly 
evident, in spite of the illusory messages, asking for con- 
ditions of peace, which were periodically sent to the British 
camps. On the 26th of May, General Wood advanced his 
column eight miles, and General Newdigate proceeded a 

* General Clifford remained in Pietermaritzburg and was charged with 
the defence of Natal. 



LORD CHELMSFORD'S HEAD QUARTERS, 173 

distance of twelve miles towards the Blood river. Lord 
Chelmsford established his head-quarters at Kopje Alleen. 
Not until the middle of June could Port Durnford be used 
for sending supplies to General Crealock's coast column. 
Great additional transport facilities were by this means 
secm'ed. On June 3rd a belief prevailed at the Lower 
Tugela that an advance would be made as soon as the 
supply of cattle for transport purposes was sufficient. 
During all the operations the percentage of sickness was 
not very great. In the early part of the war a large number 
of men were invalided, particularly from the coast column. 
The D'Urban hospitals were full, but the number of deaths 
was not large, and as the cold season advanced sick- 
ness became less. Zululand, during May, June, and July, 
is, in fact, as healthy as any country in the world. 

The two northern columns moved on slowly. On the 
7th of June Lord Chelmsford was at Nondanai river, where 
a fortified post had been established. The 5th of June 
was the date of Colonel BuUer's skirmish, already referred 
to, in which Lancers and Dragoons were engaged. On the 
17th of June a correspondent reports that Newdigate's forces 
were constantly occupied patrolling and shelling kraals 
and dongas, with no apiDreciable result. At this time the 
Zulus appeared in great force within sight of the camp at 
Luneberg. Newdigate's column then marched to join 
that of General Wood. The utmost possible precautions 
were taken against surprise, both on the march and in 
camp. At one place the rocks, which would have offered 
excellent cover for an attacking force, were mined. The 



r. 



174 EISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

mines could be fired by means of electricity from, the 
laager. Lines of galvanized wire were also placed round 
the camp, which the soldiers styled " Cetywayo catchers." 
The heliograph was used for signalling by means of 
flashes, and turned out extremely useful. On the 26th of 
June* the 1st Brigade, with the Naval Brigade, moved 
from Fort Napoleon, and the long-expected junction of 
the columns appeared at last likely to be effected. It was 
certainly high time. The English imported horses in 
Newdigate'sf brigade were beginning to suffer from the 

* It was in June that Lord Chelmsford received from the Secretary of 
State for War congratulations on the success of Ghinghelova, which he states 
he is convinced is largely due to the careful arrangements made by Lord 
Chelmsford for the march of the relieving column. He also says that the 
tenacity with which Ekowe was held by Colonel Pearson and the force 
under his command, deserves the highest praise. 

The Secretary for War, referring to the action with Wood's column, 
says, " I note with great satisfaction the part taken by the colonial troops 
in the operations, though I deeply regret the heavy losses they have sus- 
tained. The country has to deplore the loss of many gallant officers. It 
is difficult to single out individuals for special notice, but I must express 
my sorrow at the loss of Mr. Piet Uys, whose services on this as well as 
other occasions have been so fully recognized by those under whom he has 
served." 

He also says, " Colonel Wood's force seems to have defended Kambula 
camp with a gallantry and determination worthy of great praise. ... I 
rejoice to note that the repulse of the enemy was on both occasions com- 
plete and decisive. I have communicated to the Queen the welcome news 
conveyed in Colonel Bellairs' telegram above referred to ; and I have 
received her Majesty's commands to convey to you, and to the forces under 
your command, a gracious message of congratulation." 

f A correspondent from Newdigate's column writes as follows : — 
" Reveille at 5 a.m. as usual ; the men dispersed at 6.30 to drink the warm 
coffee prepared for them. Shortly after the disperse was sounded, to the 
annoyance of every one in camp, the enjoyment of their coffee was spoilt by 
the assembly being sounded ; the tents were lowered, the cavalry saddling 
up and riding some 200 yards from camp. The utility of this manoeuvre 
was not apparent to the troops, being at an unreasonable time. In Wood's 



SIR MICHAEL HICKS BEACH. 175 

severity of weather and a scarcity of food, the Zulus had 
abundance of time to collect a large army, and the immense 
delay in striking a decisive blow discouraged our troops, 
encouraged the enemy, and caused immense dissatisfaction 
to the pubhc at home and in the colony. The Imperial 
Ministry at last seemed to partially yield to public pressure 
and public opinion. Sir Garnet Wolseley was appointed 
Commander-in-Chief and her Majesty's High Commissioner 
for the Natal, Transvaal, and Zululand. In connection 
with the bm-ning questions of the day and the blame so 
lavishly bestowed upon the civil and military leaders in 
South Africa, the following despatch from the Secretary of 
State ought to be read with careful attention. Sir Michael 
Hicks Beach says (28th May, 1879) :— 

"After full consideration of the condition of affairs in 

column the alarm is invariably sounded about sunset after a new laager has 
been formed, in order that every one might know at night what waggon he 
is stationed at, without creating confusion. If a night attack should be 
made, everything is so slovenly and loosely carried out here that we pray 
for the return of General Wood, to rejoin our own column ; for then we 
feel that we should be safer from our enemies than we are from our friends. 
This column has too much gold lace and red tape about it for South African 
warfare. The contrast between the two columns is very striking in many 
things, more especially in the punctilious military etiquette of this column, 
where on every side one is hkely to be stopped by the sentry, and told that 
you must not go tlirough a row of huts because a staff tent is under hia 
charge. At head-quarters, plebeian's feet must not intrude within a certain 
distance. With General Wood's column there are no sentries over staff 
tents ; the only day sentries are over Government stores, the regimental 
colours, and guard tents. All the staff tents display flags, denoting that 
business' is done there, and they are open to the approach of every one who 
may have business to transact. General Wood, Colonel Buller, and their 
officers, have no pride or affectation. As a rule the officers of all branches 
of the service follow the example of their commanders, and are as courteous 
and friendly as they ai'e brave." 



176 HIS TOBY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

South Africa, her Majesty's Government have decided that 
the arrangements under which the chief civil and miHtary 
authority in the neighbourhood of the seat of war is 
distributed among four different persons can no longer 
be deemed adequate to the requirements of the present 
juncture. 

"2. In the number of imperial troops engaged, and the 
expenditure incurred, the Zulu war has assumed dimen- 
sions far exceeding those of any that has been carried on 
for many years in South Africa ; and it appears but too 
evident that military operations have been seriously im- 
peded by a want of harmony between the civil and military 
authorities, of which the difference that has arisen between 
the Lieutenant- General commanding the forces and the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Natal, with regard to the disposal 
of a portion of the native levies called out for service, has 
furnished a striking example. 

"3. In such a matter the High Commissioner has no 
power to interfere, but were it otherwise you would be 
unable, in present circumstances, to interfere with any 
practical effect. For the prompt action requisite in time 
of war would entirely preclude the satisfactory reference 
to Cape Town of this or any other of the numerous 
questions requiring the decision of the High Commissioner ; 
while, on the other hand, your own presence at the seat 
of war has become impossible. After an unavoidable pro- 
tracted absence from Ca^De Town (during which you have 
laboured with singular zeal and energy to discharge all the 
duties which have devolved upon you) you will be entirely 



NEW ARRANGEMENTS. Ill 

occupied with many important matters necessarily post- 
poned until your return. 

'' 4. The union of Griqualand West with the Cape, to the 
settlement of which your recent visit to the province will 
have largely contributed, has to be completed ; the financial 
questions jointly concerning the colony and this country 
demand immediate attention ; and important work remains 
to be done in carrying out the recent legislation of the 
Cape Parliament for the defence of the colony. But above 
all her Majesty's Government are anxious that the larger 
and more complicated questions connected with confedera- 
tion, on which I shall shortly address you, should be 
considered, under your guidance, during the approaching 
session of the Cape Parliament, and they attach special 
inportance to the advantages which may be derived from 
your exertions in promoting this great work. 

" 5. Under these circumstances, her Majesty's Govern- 
ment have determined to place the chief military and civil 
command in the eastern portion of South Africa in the 
hands of one officer, and they have selected Lieutenant- 
General Sir Garnet Wolseley, G.C.M.G., for this duty. His 
high professional standing and his varied and distinguished 
services preclude any question as to the fitness of placing 
him for the time in supreme authority over the able men 
now commanding her Majesty's troops in South Africa 
and administering the Governments of Natal and the 
Transvaal, and it is equally beyond question that he will 
receive their most loyal and cordial support. Sir Garnet 
Wolseley will, in addition to his miHtary command, be 

N 



178 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

commissioned as Governor of Natal and of the Transvaal, 
and High Commissioner for Native and Foreign Affairs 
to the northward and eastward of those colonies. In the 
latter capacity he will assume for the time that portion 
of your functions which, at a crisis of such gravity as 
the present, could not be performed by any High Com- 
missioner acting at a distance of more than 1000 miles 
from the scene of operations. You will, I am confident, be 
the first to recognize the necessity of the arrangement, and 
will readily assist Sir Garnet Wolseley, should you have 
returned to Cape Town by the time of his arrival there 
on his way to enter upon the duties of his office, with 
all the valuable information which your knowledge and 
experience enable you to afford." 

The Under-Secretary for War, writing to Lord Chelms- 
ford (29th May), says : — 

"I have now to convey to you the intimation that her 
Majesty's Government, having carefully considered the 
information at their command, have come to the conclusion 
that the satisfactory administration of affairs in that part 
of South-E astern Africa in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the seat of war can at the present moment only be 
carried out by placing that administration in the hands 
of one person holding plenary powers, both civil and 
military, and that they have selected Sir Garnet Wolseley 
to discharge these duties. 

^' The Colonial Office will by this mail have informed 
Sir Bartle Frere of this decision, and of its effects so far as 
he himself is concerned. 



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180 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

should be returned. At the same time that Cetywayo 
pretended to desire peace, his people raided over our border 
at Middle Drift, swooped down upon the friendly natives 
near Luneberg, and endeavoured to enter into an alliance 
with rebellious Boers. The impi that had been occupying 
the Intombe valley was withdrawn into Zululand, and it 
was clear that a concentration of forces was about to take 
place at Ulundi. 

Sir Garnet Wolseley arrived at Natal on the 27th of June. 
His staff comprised Colonels Colley, Eussell, and Bracken- 
bury ; Major McCalmont ; and Captains Lord Gifford, 
Bushman, Yeatman Biggs, Maurice, Brathwaite and Doyle. 
The Mayor and Corporation of D'Urban presented an 
address to his Excellency, in which, after heartily welcoming 
him, it is stated that British South Africa had unanimously 
endorsed the consistent policy adopted and pursued by Sir 
Bartle Frere, as the only means open for seeming a lasting 
and honourable peace. Sir Garnet Wolseley, in returning 
thanks, expressed a hope that a strong and stable peace 
might be gained, as a means to secure lasting immunity 
from external discord and hostility. '^ Severe as is this 
stress upon you, you must, I feel confident, see cause for 
satisfaction in the patriotic and successful exertions with 
which your volunteers have laboured to avert peril from 
your country, and to maintain the prowess of English 
arms in battle." The new General and High Commissioner 
then proceeded to Pietermaritzburg, and shortly afterwards 

The few remaining bodies far down on the Fugitives' Drift track will be 
interred in a day or two.'" Subsequently another party was sent, and 
suitable cairns were erected. 



OFINIONS AS TO TEE WAB. 181 

returned and went by sea to Port Durnford, but being 
.unable to land there, was compelled to return to D'Urban, 
and to proceed thence overland to the front. 

A difference of opinion existed from the first as to the 
necessity of the Zulu war, and with reference to the 
character of Cetywayo. This became much more pro- 
nounced after the disaster at Isandhlwana. It is a signifi- 
cant fact that a very small minority of those who knew the 
Zulus and lived in Natal shared the sentiments of the 
British philanthropists, who lived securely at home, and 
took upon themselves to condemn a policy with the reasons 
for which they were only imperfectly acquainted. The 
Bishop of Natal, Dr. Colenso, was, in South Africa, the 
leader of the party who denounced the war. In the Blue 
Books laid before Parliament interesting letters from his 
able pen are published, in which he argues the Zulu case 
exactly as if the race were a civilized one, which could 
be expected to observe treaties, and with whom perfidy and 
deceit were unknown. In a despatch from Sir Bartle 
Frere, written from Pretoria, in the Transvaal, and dated 
the 18th of April, the High Commissioner sums up the 
arguments for war. These reasons utterly and completely 
exclude any feeling or desire for vengeance, and all intention 
to advance civilization, commerce, and Christianity by the 
sword. It was absolutely necessary, however, that the 
Zulu king should cease to reign, the military power of that 
nation be broken up, and his people made to feel them- 
selves subject to the British power. Sir Bartle Frere 
says : — ■ 



182 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

''I believe that this is in the interests of the Zulus, no 
less than of their neighbours. 

''It is in the interest of the European population of 
Natal and the Transvaal, because they cannot possibly live 
in peace and quiet with the Zulus in their present state 
as neighbours. 

'' The events of the last few months have rendered it 
unnecessary to prove by argument that the Zulus have 
been made into a great military power; that they can 
destroy an English regiment, with artillery to support 
it; or shut up or defeat a brigade six times as strong as 
the ordinary garrison of Natal, unless our troops are very 
carefully posted and very well handled. 

" The open declarations of their king, no less than the 
fundamental laws of their organization, proclaim foreign 
conquest and bloodshed as a necessity of their existence. 

"They are practically surrounded by British territory. 
Except the Portuguese, there is now no foreign territory 
they can reach for purposes of bloodshed without passing 
through British territory. 

"It is, therefore, clear that they cannot continue in 
their present condition, with their present form of govern- 
ment and present military organization, without attacking 
British subjects, or, at best, unoffending neighbours, who 
believe themselves safe as British subjects or allies. 

" They make no prisoners save, occasionally, young 
women and half-grown children. They show no quarter, 
and give no chance to the wounded or disabled, disem- 
bowelling them at once. 



SIB BARTLE FBERE'S VIEWS. 183 

'* They are separated from Natal by a river easily 
fordable for the greater part of the year, and not too wide 
to talk across at any time. 

*' The boundary between them and the Transvaal is even 
more easily passed. 

" All these, I submit, are incontrovertible facts, proved 
by the well-known events of the past few months. 

^'1 know that there are educated men to be found, of 
great ability, who claim to be lovers of liberty and of right, 
and of their own species, who have lived long near the 
Zulus, and who say there is no danger to be apprehended 
from them if we let them alone ; that Cetywayo is a well- 
meaning prince, quite within his own right in massacring 
his own subjects, and our soldiers, too, if they enter his 
territory; that all that is necessary to our own safety is 
to let the Zulu king alone, or if the English do not like that, 
to leave his neighbourhood. 

'' Having lived now for many weeks within a couple 
of Zulu marches of the Zulu border, among sensible 
Englishmen, many of them men of great sagacity, coolness, 
and determination, and reasonably just and upright in all 
their dealings, who never went to sleep without having 
their arms within reach, and being prepared to take refuge 
with wives and families at a minute's warning within a 
fortified post ; having learnt from ' voortrekkers ' and their 
children, who had witnessed the massacres of Weenen and 
Blauwkrantz, and who could thus testify that the present 
peculiarities of Zulu warfare are no recent innovation; I 
may be allowed to doubt the possibility of making life 



184 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

within reach of a Zulu ' impi ' permanently tolerable to 
ordinary Englishmen and Dutchmen. 

"Nor does it seem to me that we can justly say to 
colonists, either in Natal or the Transvaal, that if they 
do not like the situation they may go elsewhere. 

" The Zulu right to be where the Zulus now are is, 
with the exception of a small and remote tract towards 
Delagoa Bay, simply one of recent conquest by devastation 
and massacre. 

" I have never heard the historical fact questioned that 
the earlier Zulu * impis ' into what is now Natal and 
Transvaal territory preceded by a very few years, if they 
preceded at all, the first appearance of Dutch and English 
adventurers in the same lands ; and the Zulus certainly 
cannot claim, as the Dutch and English may, any right 
of occupation from having civilized or improved the 
land. 

" Hence it seems to me no more than natural justice that 
if either party is to make way for the other, the Zulus 
should yield, and not the English or Dutch. 

" But I submit that in the interests of the Zulus them- 
selves we have no right to leave them to their fate. 

" The present system of Cetywayo is no real choice of 
the nation. It is simply a reign of terror, such as has 
before now been imposed on some of the most civilized 
nations of the world. The people themselves are every- 
thing that could be desired as the unimproved material 
*of a very fine race. They seem to have all the capacities 
for forming a really happy and civilized community, where 



THREE COURSES BEFORE US. 185 

law, order, and right shall prevail, instead of the present 
despotism of a ruthless savage. 

"1 can imagine but three ways of their being so 
improved : — 

"1st. They might, living alongside a civilized com- 
munity, gradually imbibe civilized ideas and habits. 

'^But for this it is necessary that their civilized neigh- 
bours should be able to live in security, which, as I have 
already said, seems to me hopeless, unless the military 
organization and power of Cetywayo be broken down. 

" 2nd. There are the means of improvement which may 
follow conquest and the breaking down of Cetywayo's 
military system ; and this seems to me the only reasonable 
mode of doing our duty by these people. In the cases 
of Abyssinia and Ashantee we were compelled by circum- 
stances to retire after conquest, and wash our hands of 
all further responsibility for the future of those countries ; 
but there is no such necessity in the case of Zululand — 
there is nothing to prevent our taking up and easily 
carrying the burden of the duty laid upon us to protect and 
civilize it. 

" There is yet a third plan, which I have seen advocated 
by high authority. 

'' The Zulus are, it is truly said, a nation of fine 
national characteristics. They have qualities which might 
enable them to become the regenerators and the foremost 
in civilization of all the nations in South Africa. 

'' So far I can agree with those who hold the opinions 
I refer to, but not in their further belief that Cetywayo 



186 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

is the Attila of the Zulus, and that if we only let him alone 
he will develop into a Charlemagne or an Alfred. 

"How far this process might be rendered tolerable 
to the present civilized inhabitants of Natal and the 
Transvaal, I will not stop to inquire. It is quite possible 
that Zulus, overrunning their now civilized neighbours, 
might in due time imbibe some of their civilization, settle 
down, and become civilized themselves, absorbing through 
their captives and subjects the germs of a better system of 
national existence. 

"I may doubt the probability of such a result, but I 
will not contest its possibility, and will only say that I am 
quite sure the countrymen of the present settlers in Natal 
and the Transvaal will never leave the colonists there to be 
made the subjects of any such experiment. 

"I can, as I started by saying, see no alternative com- 
patible with our duty but effectually to subdue the Zulus, 
and govern them as other South African races subject to 
the British Crown are governed. 

" It seems to me that no terms can possibly be made 
with Cetywayo which can be compatible with such a result, 
save with the indispensable preliminary of his entire sub- 
mission." 

In the beginning of July Lord Chelmsford's column was 
within ten miles of the king's kraal at Ulundi. Messengers 
again arrived from Cetywayo, and on this occasion they 
brought the sword of the Prince Imperial as a peace offer- 
ing. The amanuensis of Cetywayo was a Dutchman, 
named Vogel, who took the opportunity of marking in 



CETYWATO'S PEACE OFFERS. 187 

pencil on the envelope of the letter, that the king had 
20,000 men with him. The reply of Lord Chelmsford was 
as follows: — "If the induna, Mundula, brings with him 
the 1000 rifles taken at Isandhlwana, I will not insist on 
1000 men coming in to lay down their arms, if the 
Zulus are afraid to come. He must bring the two guns 
and the remainder of the cattle. I will then be wiUing to 
negotiate. As he has caused me to advance by the great 
delay he has made, I must now go to the Umvolosi to 
enable my men to drink. I will consent, pending negotia- 
tions, to halt on the further bank of the river, and will not 
burn any kraals until the 3rd of July, provided no opposi- 
tion is made to my advance to the position on the Umvolosi, 
by which day, the 3rd of July, at noon, the conditions must 
be complied with. If my force is fired on, I shall consider 
negotiations are at an end, and to avoid any chance of this, 
it is best that Mundula come to my camp at daybreak or 
to-night, and that the Zulus , should withdraw from the 
neighbourhood of the river to Ulundi. I cannot stop the 
general in command of the coast army until these condi- 
tions are complied with." 

Of course, nothing more was seen or heard of Mundula. 
On the 2nd of July an impi, 20,000 strong, advanced from 
Ulundi as if to attack. Newdigate and Wood, at a short 
distance from each other, immediately laagered their 
waggons, and these preparations seemed to check the 
enemy. It is possible that Cetywayo had personally some 
idea of surrendering, as it is stated that a large herd of 
white cattle (the royal colour) was seen coming towards 



188 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

the camp from the direction of Cetywayo's new stronghold 
at Mahize Kanye. A number of men came out and drove 
the cattle back. A sudden scare or panic had just taken 
place at the camp. Men of the Native Contingent, having 
become alarmed, rushed in over a portion of the 2-4th 
Eegiment ; our short-service red jackets, seeing naked black 
men rushing in past them, assegai in hand, imagined that 
the Zulus were upon them, and fled in terror within the 
laager. So demoralized did the men become, that it 
required the exertion of physical force on the part of their 
officers to induce them to return to their posts. 

On the 3rd of July a large force of mounted men, under 
Colonel BuUer, crossed the river at a drift commanded by a 
rocky hill, from which the enemy were gallantly and quickly 
dislodged by Baker's Irregular Horse. BuUer moved for- 
ward to Nodwengu kraal, and on the way several stragglers 
were killed. One of them was *' stuck" by Lord William 
Beresford, with the exclamation, "First spear, by Jove ! " 
Shortly afterwards this force was nearly trapped, by means 
of the decoy of a man with a number of goats, who moved 
forward in front. The nonchalance of this fellow was so 
suspicious, that the force was suddenly wheeled to the right 
in the direction of Ulundi ; and no sooner was this done 
than a crowd of Zulus, who had been in ambush, rose out 
of a donga at a hundred yards distance, and poured in a 
heavy volley.* Preparations for battle were made during 

* The following graphic description of the pnrsuit of stragglers, and a 
narrow escape from falling into a Zulu trap, will be read with interest : — 
" During the first two days the king made no sign, and his people were march- 
ing, drilling, and performing war.dances in a fashion that did not strike me as 



PBEPARATIONS FOR BATTLE. 189 

the night of the 3rd of July. War-dancing took place 
among the enemy, while on our side the waggons were 

being very pacific. On the day tlie armistice expired at noon (July 3rd) , 
the question was solved in a way that must at least have convinced even 
Lord Chelmsford himself, that Cetywayo had been making a fool of him. 
Early in the morning (about 9 a.m.), lurking Zulus crept down to the strong 
kopje commanding the drift, and fixed on the soldiers, who were washing 
and bathing in the river below. There was a great panic and scamper, but 
I believe no one was wounded. That, however, was not all, for some of them 
came across the river and drove off fifty trek oxen which were feeding, 
taking them over the river and some distance up the opposite bank. The 
cattle guard promptly crossed and recaptured them, but up to noon our 
camp was insulted by the impudent rascals firing at us, and some few of the 
Martini-Henry bullets actually fell in the camp and laager. This was carry- 
ing things too far, and at noon Buller's brigade was ordered out to try and 
cut ofi" a few of them. We crossed the river at a drift below the camp, and 
galloping round the base of the hill, tried to pick off a few ; but we were 
too late. They had seen our preparations and were off", and we saw them 
racing off near Nodwengu. We started in pursuit, and on nearing the kraal 
we overtook the rear fugitive. There was a race to get him, amongst half a 
dozen of us, but he fell to Lord William Beresford, who gave point with his 
sabre, just as the Zulu turned to use his assegai, running him. through the 
shield and through the body. We then turned and galloped after the others, 
at least 150, whom we should have cut off had everything been on the 
square ; but the black rascals were leading us into a nice trap, which had 
been laid for the express purpose. Half-way between Nodwengu and 
Ulundi there is a sluggish spruit, with a deep bed, which runs parallel with 
this road for some distance, and then turns sharply across it at right angles. 
I had doubts when 1 saw some of these fugitives disappear in the spruit 
bed, and these doubts became certainty when I heard Buller shout out to 
' retire,' and almost at the same moment, before we could get our horses up 
and round, two lines of Zulus rose in the spruit bed and poured in a volley 
within 100 yards. If they had known how to shoot, which happily for us 
they do not, nearly every saddle ought to have been emptied ; but only three 
men and half a dozen horses were over. Lord William Beresford took up a 
dismounted man, and Commandant D'Arcy one who was wounded. The 
former got his man out safely ; the latter, I am sorry to say, was thrown by 
his horse bucking at the unaccustomed burden. The poor trooper was over- 
taken and killed, while the commandant was so severely bruised from falling 
on his revolver, that he was able to get back safe, but not able to take part 
in the next day's fight. It is hardly necessary to say that we galloped back 
at least as fast as we had come, perhaps even a little faster, for we were 



190 mSTORT OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

carefully formed into laager, and at 6 a.m. on the 4th 
of July, the British army, leaving this camp, crossed the 
Umvolosi river, and ascending to the high ground, formed 
upon it in order of battle. It was here that the Zulus had 
defeated the Boers, and it was, therefore, fitting that upon 
the field where the white men had met with disaster their 
crowning triumph should take place. A victory sufficient 
to repair and efface the stains of all previous calamities 
was absolutely required, and it was obtained in the most 
complete and satisfactory manner. 

The leaders of the Zulu army were named Tyingwayo, 
Manyamane, Dabulamanzi, Mondula, Sirayo, Mehkla Ka 
Zulu. The force under their command numbered more 
than thirteen corps of regiments, was larger than that at 
Kambula, and comprised more than 20,000 men. One of 
the prisoners, named Undungunyanga, son of Umgegane, 
declared that it was true the king had wanted to make 

seen and pursued, Zulus springing up from the grass in all directions and 
firing continuously. We ran the gauntlet the whole way back, making only 
one rally on a crest sprinkled with small trees. The line in our rear was 
500 yards off, and some of them were shot, but we were not able to stop 
very long, for we saw columns making for the drift to cut us off. Happily 
Colonel BuUer had left Baker and his men on the stony kopje to cover our 
retreat, and his men peppered one of these intercepting columns so effect- 
ually as to stop their advance. Our peril was seen from the camp, and 
Major Le Grice's battery of 9-pounders took up a position on the high ground 
in front, from which they so astonished the other column of Zulus by a well- 
directed fire of shrapnel at long range, that they too were prevented from 
carrying out their philanthropic intention. We had only, therefore, the pur- 
suing Zulus to deal with, but they followed up closely as far as the ford, 
where Captain Whalley, with the Natal Light Horse, drew up and covered our 
crossing. It is a marvel to me, considering the heavy fire that we were 
under, that we only lost three men killed, four wounded, and thirteen horses 



missing." 



THE BATTLE OF ULUNDL 191 

peace, and previous to the battle, in an address to the army, 
said that as the Inkandampeonvu regiment would not let 
the white cattle go to the British as a peace offering, and 
as the white army was now at his home, they could fight. 
The battle was to take place on the open plain between the 
Nodwengu and Ulundi kraals. The king then personally 
placed the different regiments, gave final orders, and retired 
to a kraal at a short distance to witness the battle.* The 
place in which the British army was drawn up had many 
advantages. A broad open country was around, almost 
free from bush. The Nodwengu kraal, distant about 1000 
yards, offered some cover to the enemy, and it would have 
been burned had not Colonel Buller suggested that if this 
were done the Zulus would be enabled to creep up under 
cover of the smoke. 

Very shortly after a halt had been made, and while the 
solemn duty of burying one of our men, killed on the 
previous day, was taking place, it was observed that the 
enemy was approaching from the direction of Ulundi, and 
from the bush on the right. Our troops were formed up 
in a hollow parallelogram. In the centre was the Native 
Contingent, with ammunition waggons. The four sides of 
the parallelogram were formed by eight companies of the 
13th Eegiment, five companies of the 80th Eegiment, the 
90th, 58th, and 34th Eegiments, together with the 17th 

* This Zulu prisoner also stated, " The white man who writes the king's 
letters is a trader. The king has his movements always watched." Speak- 
ing of the result of the battle of Ulundi, he said, " The army is now tho- 
roughly beaten, and, as we were beaten in the open, it will not reassemble 
or fight agaia." 



192 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

Lancers and the mounted irregulars. At the corners and 
centres artillery was placed — Gatlings,* 7-pounders, and 
9-pounders. At half-past 8 a.m., as the enemy were 
advancing, Buller's mounted men were thrown out on the 
front, left, and rear. As the right was left uncovered by 
cavalry, Cochrane' s Mounted Basutos were sent out from 
this direction to make the enemy advance nearer. As they 
retired the right face of the square commenced the action 
by a brisk fire. At ten minutes to nine o'clock the attack- 
ing army was so near the British as to make the fire from 
the latter become general. Silently and steadily the horns 
of the Zulu army came on in their usual manner ; without 
a word or cry, the warriors of Cetywayo continued to press 
forward in spite of the deadly fusillade. As at Ghinghelovo 
and Kambula, so now at Ulundi, their extraordinary 
bravery and contempt of death was the chief feature in the 
attack. During this time the British infantry were formed 
in four ranks, of which the front knelt, while the rear rank 
was reversed. Inside the square every means of obtaining 
ammunition swiftly was provided. The continuous and 
tremendous fire poured upon the advancing enemy had no 
perceptible effect at first. On, like a wave of the sea which 
cannot be stopped, poured the human tide ; but when it 
had advanced to a distance of seventy yards, flesh and 
blood could no longer stand the awful destruction which 
poured from the British lines. The main body hesitated 
and stopped. A few, more intrepid than the others, rushed 

* The Gatlings were not very snccessful. Firing had to cease six times 
during the action, as they got overheated. 



TOTAL DEFEAT OF TEE ZULUS. 193 

on ; but the wavering feeling spread throughout the Zulu 
host, and now was the exact moment to take advantage of 
it. The dogs of war were suddenly slipped. Out rushed 
the Lancers, and bore down like a hurricane upon the dis- 
heartened and discouraged multitude. Shells were break- 
ing in all directions among their masses, the incessant 
*' pings " of rifle bullets were doing deadly execution ; and 
when the cavalry plunged in among them, the Zulu army 
was literally torn asunder and broken. The flower of these 
warriors of Zululand made yet one wild effort, when Captain 
Edgell, of the Lancers, was shot dead, and Captain Drury- 
Lowe, Lieutenant James, and other officers had a narrow 
escape. Nine men were killed, and no fewer than seventy- 
five were wounded. But all was in vain ; Cetywayo's great 
army was forced to turn and fly. They had met the white 
man upon the open plain, and, though more than 20,000 to 
5000, were totally and completely defeated. Away went 
the mounted men in pursuit, and before the slaughter 
ended, fully 1000 of the Zulu army bit the dust. The 
Lancers, with the Irregular Horse, did very good work, as 
it is estimated 450 of the enemy were killed in the pursuit. 
The Zulus ran with surprising swiftness. The Lancers 
drove a crowd into a donga, and working round, pursued 
a mass of fugitives, who, being overtaken and at bay, made 
an unavailing stand, when 150 of their number were killed. 
A rest was ordered after the battle ; and then the mounted 
force rode on to Ulundi, which was found wholly deserted, 
and was at once given to the flames. Subsequently all 
the forces fell back upon the laagered camp which had 





194 HIS TOBY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

been left in tlie morning. Ulundi, the great place of the 
great monarch of Southern Africa, was wholly destroyed. 
The king's palace consisted merely of a thatched building 
of four rooms with a verandah. A Spartan absence of all 
furniture and of all luxuries w^as perceptible, but the 
numerous huts and kraals indicated that this place had 
been the head-quarters of a powerful army. Lord William 
Beresford w^as the first to enter. It was a grand sight to 
see the flames mounting to the skies, and to know that in 
their . smoke the prestige and influence of the greatest 
savage power in Southern Africa had ended. Mr. Archi- 
bald Forbes, the correspondent of the Daily News, although 
suffering from a wound, galloped to the colony with the 
news of this victory. He carried an important desjDatch 
from the general, and was the first to telegraph the news 
to Natal and to the world. Starting early in the forenoon, 
immediately after the battle of Ulundi, he rode in fourteen 
hours a distance of 110 miles to the nearest telegraph 
station at Landman's Drift, on the Buffalo river. Twice he 
lost his way in the midst of dense mist, and during the 
entire journey he was exposed to attack by scattered 
parties of the enemy. It was a daring ride, which will live 
in history, and deserved special and generous recognition. 

The following is Lord Chelmsford's telegraphic despatch 
giving a description of the battle : — 

''Cetywayo not having complied with my demands by 
noon yesterday, July 3rd, and having fired heavily on the 
troops at the water, I returned the 114 cattle he had sent 
in, and ordered a reconnaissance to be made by the mounted 



LORD CHELMSFORD'S DESPATCH. 195 

force under Colonel Buller ; tliis was effectually made, and 
caused the Zulu army to advance and show fight. 

" This morning, a force under my command, consisting 
of the second division, under Major-General Newdigate, 
numbering 1870 Europeans, 530 natives, and eight guns, 
and the flying column under Brigadier-General "Wood, 
numbering 2192 Europeans, 573 natives, four guns, and 
two Gatlings, crossed the Umvolosi river at 6.15, and 
marching in a hollow square, with the ammunition and 
entrenching tool carts and bearer company in its centre, 
reached an excellent position between Nodwengu and Ulundi, 
about half-past 8 a.m. This had been observed by Colonel 
Buller the day before. 

" Our fortified camp on the right banks of the Umvolosi 
river was left with a garrison of about 900 Europeans, 250 
natives, and one Gatling gun, under Colonel Bellairs. 

" Soon after half-past seven the Zulu army was seen 
leaving its bivouacs and advancing on every side. The 
engagement was shortly afterwards commenced by the 
mounted men. 

" By nine o'clock the attack was fully developed. At half- 
past nine the enemy wavered ; the 17th Lancers, followed 
by the remainder of the mounted men, attacked them, and 
a general rout ensued. 

''The prisoners state that Cetywayo was personally 
commanding and had made all the arrangements himself, 
and that he witnessed the fight from Qikarzi kraal, and 
that twelve regiments took part in it. If so, 20,000 men 
attacked us. 



196 HISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

*' It is impossible to estimate \Yith any correctness the 
loss of the enemy, owing to the extent of country over which 
they attacked and retreated, but it could not have been 
less, I consider, than 1000 killed. By noon Ulundi was in 
flames, and during the day all military kraals of the Zulu 
army and in the valley of the Umvolosi were destroyed. 
At 2 p.m. the return march to the camp of the column 
commenced. 

*' The behaviour of the troops under my command was 
extremely satisfactory; their steadiness under a complete 
belt of fire was remarkable. The dash and enterprise of 
the mounted branches was all that could be wished, and 
the fire of the artillery very good. A portion of the Zulu 
force approached our fortified camp, and at one time 
threatened to attack it. The Native Contingent, forming 
a part of the garrison, were sent out after the action, and 
assisted in the pursuit. 

"As I have fully accomplished the object for which I 
advanced, I consider I shall now be best carrying out Sir 
Garnet Wolseley's instructions by moving at once to 
Entonganini, and thence to Kwamagaza. I shall send 
back a portion of this force with empty waggons, for 
supplies, which are now ready at Fort Marshall." 

The last paragraph of this despatch requires comment. 
A great victory had been gained, and certainly should have 
been improved upon. It was known that Cetywayo was 
w^ith the army, and subsequent intelligence proved that a 
very little effort would have resulted in his capture. The 
new kraal oi the king was only twelve miles distant, and 



RESIGNATION OF LOUD CHELMSFORD, 197 

if a forward movement had been made to that place, an 
enormous advantage, which was merely a logical sequence of 
the battle, could have been secured. Sir Garnet Wolseley's 
instructions about retiring to Entonganini are quoted, and 
he is apparently made responsible for a retrograde step. 
Thus was the war still further ]3i'oti'acted in an un- 
necessary manner. As regards the battle of Ulundi itself, 
Lord Chelmsford did not attack, but was attacked. Both 
at home and in the colonies, throughout the Empire, there 
was a generous thrill of joy among all classes, not only for 
the decisive victory, but because it had been gained by a 
general who had been previously so unfortunate.* 

The beginning of the end had now arrived, and evident 
signs were not wanting that the Zulus accepted their defeat 
at Ulundi as a settlement of the question of supremacy. 
Lord Chelmsford resigned, and proceeded with a large 
staff from Entonganini to Pietermaritzburg. On this long 
journey he met not the slightest attempt at interruption or 
any sign of hostility. No enemy lurked in the Umhlatusi 
Bush, and in every direction the Zulus could be seen re- 
building their huts and cultivating their fields. The sword 
was turned into the ploughshare, and the ruling of fate was 
submitted to. Still serious doubts filled the minds of old 
colonists, who ranked above all their other qualities the 

* Sir Garnet Wolseley was at dinner at Fort Pearson when the news 
of the victory of Ulundi was received, and a correspondent who was present 
thus describes its reception : — " As we sat at dinner we discussed all the 
probabilities and possibilities of the situation. Had Lord Chelmsford 
embarked upon a desperate enterprise of his own ? What if success should 
not be his ? And when we thought of Isandhlwana our reflections were 
gloomy. We were still at dinner when a despatch was handed to Sir Garnet, 



198 EISTOEY OF THE ZULU WAB. 

supreme cunning and dissimulation of the Zulu race. It 
was felt as a calamity that no forward move had been made 
after Ulundi, and that there was no real finality to the war, 
until Cetywayo was either killed or captured. 

Lord Chelmsford arrived at the capital of Natal on the 21st 
of July, and was received there with an enthusiasm which 
completely surprised him. Powerful reactions are common 
in the public mind, and the general who had yesterday 
been severely criticized, was to-day lauded to the skies. 
The Corporation presented an address in which it was 
made a source of special gratification that, after the 
numerous unforeseen difficulties which had to be overcome, 
his lordship's arms had obtained a brilliant and decisive 
victory. At D' Urban a grand public banquet was given, 
when Sir Garnet Wolseley, Sir Henry Bulwer, General 
Clifford, Sir Evelyn Wood, Colonel Buller, and all dis- 
tinguished officers and citizens were present. Lord 
Chelmsford on this occasion said, " There is a saying very 
frequently quoted now-a-days, that ' nothing succeeds like 
success/ but, gentlemen, if I thought that you asked me 

and as he read it his face broke into a smile, and looking up cheerfully 
he said, ' This is indeed the best news I have read for many a long day. 
To-night, gentlemen, we may sleep peacefully, for Lord Chelmsford has been 
engaged with the army of the Zulu king, and has thoroughly defeated it." 
The despatch was from Mr. Sivewright, the general manager of the telegraph 
in South Africa. Sir Garnet read us the sentence, short, clear, and decisive, 
showing us how Cetywayo in person had made his final effort to save his 
kingdom, and was now a refugee and an outcast from his nation in the 
black swamps of the Umvolosi. The despatch was read by order of the 
general to the troops ; and borne by the high wind across the waters of 
the Tugela into Zululand went the British cheers which announced the 
fall of the bold, brave, cruel, and crafty king. We slept soundly that 
night." 



■» 



BANQUET AT D'UEBAN. 199 

to dinner simply because I had been successful, it would be 
as water from the Dead Sea placed to ni}^ mouth ; but from 
what the Mayor has said, it is clear you sympathize with 
me not because I succeeded, but because under circum- 
stances of extreme difficulty I endeavoured to do my duty. 
There have been many painful incidents connected with 
the war, so that it is impossible to look back upon it 
without mingled feelings of satisfaction and regret. On 
this I will not further touch ; but there is one point on 
which I can look back with pure and unalloyed satisfaction, 
already alluded to by my gallant friend General Wood — I 
mean the loyal and efficient assistance given to me by all 
ranks in the army, which is such that the satisfaction and 
pride that I feel will be remembered as long as I live. I 
never could have believed it possible for any general to 
receive such assistance and devotion as I have experienced 
from my men. I could always feel that, whether I was 
present or absent, they were striving to do their best to 
get out of difficulties, and this was not confined to one 
rank, but was common to all ranks ; and I believe I may 
say that I had the confidence and sincere support of all 
ranks of the army, from the lowest to the highest. It 
would be invidious to particularize individuals and services, 
but when I look back eighteen months, two names stand 
out in broad relief — those already alluded to, the one by 
the Mayor, and the other by General Wood — the names of 
Wood and BuUer. I can say that these two have been 
my right and left supporters during the whole of my time 
in this countr}^ They came out with me in the same 



200 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

steamer ; in every position I have been in they have been 
in the fore-front, and now I feel proud to think they return 
with me to their native land again. The Mayor asked one 
question, namely, whether the war was over or not. I 
think I can best answer this by saying that these two men 
are going back to England ; depend upon it, if there were 
any great work to be done, these two men would never have 
left the forces. I again thank you for the manner in which 
you have drank this toast, and desire to include in my 
thanks all those who met me on Monday night. I shall 
carry back a grateful remembrance of this place ; and if in 
the public position I shall hold it is ever possible for me 
to render any assistance towards the prosperity of the 
colony, you may depend upon it I shall do so." 

In concluding this chapter, it seems right to quote fully 
from the London Gazette the official reasons for placing 
five brave men on the *'roll of fame" for gallant deeds 
performed in the Zulu war. 

" War Office, June 17th. 

" The Queen has been graciously pleased to signify her 
intention to confer the decoration of the Victoria Cross on 
the undermentioned officers and soldier of her Majesty's 
army, whose claims have been submitted for her Majesty's 
approval, for their gallant conduct during the recent opera- 
tions in South Africa, as recorded against their names, 
viz. : — 

" Captain and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Eedvers H. 
Buller, C.B., 60th Eifles, for his gallant conduct at the retreat 
at Zlobane on the 28th of March, 1879, in having assisted. 



nONOUR TO TEE BRAVE. 201 

while hotly pursued by Zulus, m rescuing Captain C. D'Arcy, 
of the Frontier Light Horse, who was retiring on foot, and 
carrying him on his horse until he overtook the rear-guard. 
Also for having, on the same date and under the same 
circumstances, conveyed Lieutenant C. Everitt, of the 
Frontier Light Horse, whose horse had been killed under 
him, to a place of safety. Later on Colonel BuUer, in the 
same manner, saved a trooper of the Frontier Light Horse, 
whose horse was completely exhausted, and who otherwise 
would have been killed by the Zulus, who were within 
eighty yards of him. 

" Major William K. Leet, 1st Battalion, 13th Eegiment, 
for his gallant conduct on the 28th of March, 1879, in 
rescuing from the Zulus Lieutenant A. M. Smith, of the 
Frontier Light Horse, during the retreat from the Zlobane. 
Lieutenant Smith, while on foot, his horse having been 
shot, was closely pursued by the Zulus, and would have 
been killed, had not Major Leet taken him upon his horse 
and rode with him, under the fire of the enemy, to a place 
of safety. 

" Surgeon-Major James Henry Eeynolds, Army Medical 
Department, for the conspicuous bravery, during the attack 
at Korke's Drift, on the 22nd and 23rd of January, 1879, 
which he exhibited in his constant attention to the wounded 
under fire, and in his voluntarily conveying ammunition 
from the store to the defenders of the hospital, whereby he 
exposed himself to a cross fire from the enemy, both in 
going and returning. 

"Lieutenant Edward S. Browne, 1st Battalion, 24th Eegi- 



202 EISTOBY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

ment, for the gallant conduct on tlie 29tli of March, 1879, 
when the Mounted Infantiy were being driven in by the 
enemy at Zlobane, in gallox^ing back and twice assisting 
on his horse (under heavy fire and within a few yards of 
the enemy) one of the mounted men, who must otherwise 
have fallen into the enemy's hands. 

'' Private Wassail, 80th Eegiment, for his gallant conduct 
in having, at the imminent risk of his own life, saved that 
of Private Westwood, of the same regiment. On the 22nd 
of January, 1879, when the camp at Isandhlwana was 
taken by the enemy, Private Wassail retreated towards the 
Buffalo river, in which he saw a comrade struggling and 
apparently drowning. He rode to the bank, dismounted, 
leaving his horse on the Zulu side, rescued the man from 
the stream, and again mounted his horse, di'agging Private 
Westwood across the river, under a heavy shower of bullets." 



( 203 ) 



CHAPTEE X. 

LOED CHELMSFOED'S POLICY — PEOMPTNESS AND DECISION 
OF SIE GAENET WOLSELEY — THE HUNT AND OAPTUEE 
OF CETYWAYO — DEPAETUEE FEOM NATAL — THE LAST 
OF THE ZULU KINGS A PEISONEE IN THE CASTLE OF 
CAPE TOWN — GEEAT MEETING WITH ZULU CHIEFS — 
SIE GAENET WOLSELEY'S SPEECH — SETTLEMENT OF 
THE COUNTEY — END OF THE WAE. 

Before leaving the shores of South Africa, Lord Chelms- 
ford took occasion at Ca^De Town to make a public defence 
of his policy, in which he denied that he had been guilty of 
hesitation and vacillation. His mind was made up at a 
very early date, and he went on unswervingly to Ulundi by 
the route he had originally resolved upon. If the work 
were to be done over again he would adopt the same plan 
of campaign. In marching upon Ulundi no calculation 
was made for assistance from the coast column — only 
indirect support was reckoned upon. After the crushing 
defeat at Ulundi no advantage would have been gained by 
endeavouring to penetrate the difficult country lying north 
of the king's kraal, even had the state of supplies permitted 
it. While, therefore, one portion of the force retraced its 
steps towards the Blood river, escorting the sick and 
wounded, and taking with it all the empty waggons, the 



204 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

others moved via Kwamagwasa to St. Paul's, and then 
completed the cham of strongly entrenched posts extending 
east and west along the centre of Zululand at intervals of 
about twenty miles. So far one side of the question. On 
the other hand, men of unquestioned ability and experi- 
ence, correspondents for several of the leading journals of 
the world, did not hesitate to blame Lord Chelmsford 
severely. These men were on the spot, were qualified to 
form an opinion, and it is absurd and unjust to imagine 
that political bias of any sort guided their pens. 

The Times' correspondent complains of the want of a 
definite plan, and speaks of orders having been counter- 
manded, and of general uncertainty. '' What is wanted is 
a bolder determination." On the 16th of June he writes, 
*'We are wandering towards Ulundi much as the chil- 
dren of Israel wandered towards Canaan, without plans 
or even definite notions for the future. Plain, common- 
sense plans suffice, if backed by energy, decision, and 
determination." The Telegraph's correspondent tells us that 
Lord Chelmsford's intelligence department " has been 
singularly defective throughout." The correspondent ot 
the Daily Neivs, Mr. Archibald Forbes, thoroughly shared 
these opinions, and expresses them with conspicuous j)ower 
and ability. Indeed, it is almost impossible for any one 
to study carefully the proceedings of this protracted cam- 
paign, from the arrival of reinforcements in March until the 
battle of Ulundi, and not come to conclusions by no means 
complimentary to the general commanding-in-chief. It is 
urged that carriers, such as those employed by Sir Garnet 



Sm GAENET WOLSELEY. 205 

Wolseley immediately after his arrival,* would have im- 
mensely facilitated transport, and when we consider that 
4000 British troops at Ulundi defeated, in the open field, 
the concentrated power of Cetywayo — an army of more 
than 20,000 men — it is hard to believe that a column such 
as "Wood's, properly reinforced and moving quickly, would 
not have been able to finish the war. 

Sir Garnet Wolseley's proceedings were of the most 
prompt and vigorous character. Disappointed in not being 
able to land at Port Durnford, he had to return to D' Urban 
and proceed overland to General Crealock's coast column. 
When near the coast, he was gratified by receiving news of 
the battle of Ulundi, but was subsequently disappointed at 
Lord Chelmsford's neglecting to take full advantage of this 
victory. That officer almost immediately resigned, and 
had an interview with Sir Garnet, whom he met at St. 
Paul's. A Ulundi column was organized under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Clarke, consisting of the 60th Eegiment, Barrow's 
Mounted Infantry, two troops of Lonsdale's Horse, and two 
troops of the Native Contingent. This small movaoble 
column was ordered to operate towards the upper waters of 
the White and Black Umvolosi ; Oham, with a burgher 

* " Some 2000 Zulus have been employed by the general as carriers, on 
the same principle as he adopted in the Ashantee campaign. It has proved 
a great success, and saved tremendous expense in transport. They receive 
twenty shillings per month, and rations. Every man carries fifty-six pounds 
at a time. This system has caused some discontent among the Natal Native 
Contingent, V7ho complain that after these men fighting against us the 
Government are paying and allowing them the same privilege as them.- 
selves. But considering these men don't do half the work the carriers do, 
and having a natural failing for grumbling, no notice is taken of their 
complaint." 



206 mSTORY OF TEE ZULU WAB. 

force, was to move from Lnneberg. On the 21st of July 
Sir Garnet had a satisfactory interview with the principal 
Znki chiefs. Dabulamanzi, the king's brother and one of 
the chief leaders of his army, had smTendered at Fort 
Chelmsford (Crealock's colnmn) on the 11th of July, and 
numbers of minor chiefs, with their people, came forward 
to declare their submission to the British Government. 
Colonel Baker Eussell was directed to operate from Inta- 
ba,nkawa, in the direction of the Black Umvolosi, lending 
assistance to Oham, whose forces were situated in a more 
northerly direction. Under Colonel Yilliers it was arranged 
that the Swazis should cross the Pongolo, accompanied by 
Political Agent Macleod. As Sir Garnet considered that 
there were more troops in the command than were neces- 
sary, the first division and cavalry brigade were broken 
up. Generals Crealock and Marshall went home. The 
l-13th, l-24th, and 17th Lancers were ordered to leave, 
and several colonial corps were disbanded. Brigadier- 
General Wood and Colonel Buller required rest, and pro- 
ceeded to England, while the Marines who arrived by the 
Jumna, from Plymouth, were sent back before even they 
reached Natal. 

The chase of Cetywayo must always form an interesting 
episode in British colonial history. No war in Zululand 
could be said to be thoroughly at an end in which the 
despot whose will was law throughout the entire country 
was left uncaptured. The task of securing his person was 
a very difficult one. The king was looked upon as sacred, 
and we shall see that the most unbounded loyalty was 



HUNTING CETYWAYO. 207 

manifested towards him. The comitry into which he had 
retreated was broken and difficult, intersected by forests 
and unprovided with roads. Above all, the people were 
thoroughly hostile, and faithful unto death to the monarch 
who was j)ursued to death by the hated white man. 
Nevertheless, the chase was successful, and that it was so 
reflected immense credit upon those engaged in it. 

The force told off for the duty was organized at Ulundi. 
It was placed under the command of Major Barrow, and 
comprised the King's Dragoon Guards, the Mounted In- 
fantry, Lonsdale's Horse, Captain Norse's Mounted Con- 
tingent, Jantje's Horse mider Captain Hayes, together with 
a corps of Guides under Corporal Acutt. The hunt lasted 
fourteen days, and commenced on a Tuesday afternoon with 
a forced march of twenty-one hours, during the whole of 
which time the men were in the saddle. In this manner 
Zonyamma's kraal was reached, where it was supposed the 
king might be. The king had left the day previously with 
thirty men. Two hours' rest, and away over very hilly 
country. A terribly steep hill was descended, and a kraal 
visited where Cetywayo had been that morning. The 
river Mona was then crossed, and a steep hill ascended in 
order to reach Umboipa's kraal, where the scent was entirely 
lost. Of course, the Zulus knew where the king was, but 
nothing on earth would induce them to tell. Umbopa 
(whose son v\^as with Cetywayo) was then made prisoner 
and taken to his son's kraal, at a distance of five miles, 
where some of the king's slaughter oxen were found. 
The kraal was deserted. Lord Gifford, second in com- 



208 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU JVAR. 

mand, was then ordered to scour the country, and had a 
very exciting but unsuccessful chase after a naked Zulu, 
who afterwards turned out to be one of the king's servants, 
api)ointed to look out and give warning of the approach of 
pursuers. Forty Zulus were got together by Major Barrow, 
but neither promises nor threats had any effect upon them. 
They were as loyal to their sable ruler as a faithful High- 
lander to his chief, or a loyal Cavalier to his king. At last 
it was accidentally mentioned that one of Cetywayo's own 
servants was present. With great difficulty some infor- 
mation was obtained from him, and a promise to put the 
British force on the right track. At the dawn of day the 
dense black forests of the Umvolosi were entered, and as 
they proceeded pots and calabashes, evidently dropped in 
flight, were picked up. On — on until the river was reached, 
but there, alas ! the trail was completely wanting. A few 
" koodoos " quietly grazing was the only sign of life. Lord 
Gifford was then sent to Funwayo's kraal, eight miles 
distant, and there information was obtained that some 
of the king's girls had been seen passing that way. Five 
miles further on was Shemana's kraal, where the same party 
were again heard of. Pushing through thick bush and 
long grass, in which the small band under Lord Gifford — 
only eleven in number — could very easily have been cut off, 
they got at length to a kraal, where they again heard of 
the girls. Thence, taking two men as guides, they pro- 
ceeded further, taking care to make for the open country, in 
order to intercept Cetywayo in case he endeavoured to reach 
the Inkanhla forest. At last they reached Umgitya's kraal, 



CAPTURE OF THE KING'S PEOPLE. 209 

from whence they could overlook the bush in which they 
supposed the king to he. Disappointment then met them 
on every side, only reHeved by the encounter with the two 
gnis who, in spite of emphatic denials, there was every reason 
to believe were the property of the king. One of the king's 
own servants was shortly afterwards ca]3tui'ed, and inside 
his bundle was found a valuable Martini-Henry rifle of 
excellent workmanship. Subsequently, this prisoner con- 
fessed that he had left the king only two or three days 
previously. A day's rest was then taken, and while 
encamped, seven girls, a young man, and a boy were 
caught, who reported that Cetywayo was captured, and 
that they had fled from his place two days before. It 
then turned out that when the jDursuing party was en- 
camped on the banks of the Black Umvolosi, they were 
only within 300 yards of the king, some of whose people 
ran away, thinking that his capture was certain. Next day 
they commenced to scour the bush. There they had to 
sleep, while Zulu beef and Zulu beer were their fare. 
Most of the party at this time thought the game was up, 
but Lord Gilford was still full of hope. Back they went, 
beating the bush on the way, to Umbopa's son's place, 
where the ki'aal was burned and the cattle captured. The 
main body was shortly afterwards reached, and there, at 
last, rather precise information was obtained from a Zulu 
*'by means of proper persuasive measures." This man 
was to act as guide, but no sooner had they entered the 
bush than he slipped off and escaped. Two places which 
had evidently been prepared for the king were seen, and 

p 



210 IIISIOEY OF THE ZULU WAIl. 

tlie party had to return again to the kraals, which had now 
become head-quarters. 

Two of Oham's men came in i3rofessing their loyalty, 
and were appointed spies, but a little boy revealed the fact 
that one of them had been with the king down in the bush, 
and then, before all the people, they were told that their 
double-dealing' and humbug were perfectly understood. 
Trails were followed, people were examined, but all to no 
purpose ; fealty to the king was paramount. Neither the 
loss of their cattle, which were carried off, the fear of death, 
nor the offer of bribes, immense in value to them, were of 
any avail. Eeturning from one of then- long exploring 
expeditions, a woman was suddenly met in the bush, 
whose fright at the sight of the white men and the guns 
was so great as to make her confess the place where the 
king had slept two nights previously. A party went off at 
dusk to this place, and captured three brothers, who being 
questioned, under fear of death, declared that they knew 
nothing, and that if killed they would die innocently. In 
the dark forest, lit up by the moon and the bright glare of 
the bivouac fire, the three men stood before their captors. 
It was a subject worthy of the pencil of Salvator Kosa. 
Interrogatories, threats, promises, all were useless, until 
at last the plan was adopted of leading one of the brothers 
away blindfolded behind a bush, and causing a rifle to be 
fired off in such a way as to induce the others to believe 
that he was shot. At last, overcome by fear, one of them 
told where the king had slept the night before, and where 
he had seen him that morning. The other brother, being 



CETYWAYO CAPTUBED. 211 

informed that everything was known, confirmed the intel- 
ligence. Away went Lord Gifford and his party, with 
these two men as guides, and at dayhreak the kraal was 
reached and found deserted. The direction that Cetywaj^o 
had taken was then pointed out, and having been followed 
to one of Umnyamna's kraals, it was then discovered that 
the king was only five miles distant, and had halted for 
the day. It was then absolutely necessary to surround 
the place without being seen, particularly as his refuge 
was close by the side of a forest, into which, upon the 
slightest alarm, he would immediately escape. As it was 
known that the Dragoons had gone some distance beyond 
this place, a note was sent by Lord Gifford to Major Marter, 
telling him to watch the passes. The latter officer, upon 
questioning the Zulu, ascertained where the king was, 
and immediately made such dispositions as to render 
escape impossible. The kraal was surrounded before 
Cetywayo had the slightest idea that his pursuers were 
upon him. The men of the Natal Native Contingent called 
upon him to surrender, but no notice was taken of this 
summons. Upon Major Marter repeating it, the king 
came out. The natives stretched out their hands towards 
him, but with dignity the monarch of the Zulus waved 
them back, and surrendered to Major Marter, accompanying 
his submission with a request that he might be immediately 
shot. He was informed, in reply, that if no resistance were 
made his person was perfectly safe. Then there was 
mounting in hot haste, and, under the escort of Major 
Marter' s party, the king, with four of his women, were 



212 HISTORY OF TEE ZULU WAR. 

hurried away towards Ulundi. From that place an 
ambulance with eight mules was sent out, on the morning 
of the 29th of August, to proceed to the Black Umyolosi 
river and convey him thence. The king complained of the 
jolting, and walked a good deal of the way. 

The authority for the preceding account is Mr. Lysight, 
interpreter with Lord Gifford's party. The following is 
the interesting narrative of the capture given by Major 
Marter. That officer left Colonel Clarke's column at the 
Black Umvolosi at daylight on Wednesday the 27th, in 
consequence of news coming in from General Colley that 
the king was making for the Ignome forest. He had with 
him his squadron King's Dragoon Guards, one company 
of Barton's natives under Captain Plesh, ten Mounted 
Irregulars under Lieutenant Wingh, and young Oftenbro 
as interpreter, with four scouts or guides. He sent his men 
on to threaten the inhabitants of the kraals that unless 
they gave him information about the king and helped to 
catch him, he had orders to burn their kraals, take pri- 
soners, capture cattle, and not allow them to cultivate any 
land until he was caught. At last he got an indirect hint, 
after sleeping out one night, from a Zulu whom he met, 
named Uzililo, who stated that he had come from Umbopa's 
kraal, and had heard that the " wind blew that way," point- 
ing to where the king was afterwards taken, but that the 
troops had better go ''that way," pointing further to the 
north-east, so as to get there well. This was enough for the 
major, and having also met Gifford's messenger with the 
note to Captain Maurice, who was not near, and opened it, 



MAJOR MARTEIiS NARRATIVE. '213 

in which it spoke of his being on the track again, and that he 
expected to capture the king that night, he felt sure he was 
also on the track and would try and assist at the capture. 
He went on carefully up the hill, until near the top he 
came to a kraal, when, in answer to a question for guides, 
two men started off without speaking or answering any 
questions, and took their guests to the top of the Ignome 
forest, at a place with precipitous edges looking down 
nearly 1500 feet. They came to a small open space with 
long grass, and here the guides put up their hands, and 
the party was halted. From this point only Major Marter 
and his interpreter proceeded on hands, knees, and stomach, 
imitating their guides, until fifty yards further on they 
could look down and see a small kraal of about twenty huts 
strongly stockaded, standing on a slight rise in the centre, 
surrounded by forest-covered steep slopes on three sides, 
and only open towards the south-west. This was the place 
where the king was then, and a plan was quickly arranged 
to surround it. The natives were stripped of all their clothes 
to the skin, and taking only their rifles, assegais, and 
cartridges, were to proceed down the left slope, and get 
round quietly in front and across the opening, so as to be 
in time to co-operate with the Dragoons, v/ho were to dis- 
mount and lead their horses down, as best they could, any 
place which was found at all accessible. The men were all 
dismounted, and after a little search a place was found 
where they could get into a little ravine and so work them 
very carefully to the bottom. The major led, and left the 
top at 1.45, reaching the bottom at 3 p.m., with the loss 



214 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

of two horses and several men injured. They all say it 
was most horrible w^ork, all thick forest, with rocky boulders 
to jump down sometimes several feet. However, " all's 
well that ends well," and the end was worth the means; so, 
luckily, as there was a slight rise hiding them from the 
liraal, which was only 600 yards distant, they managed to 
mount again en masse, and then, directing Captain Gibbing's 
troops to file off to the right, and Godsden's to the left, 
they charged at the kraal full gallo^D, and surrounded it 
before the people inside knew they were there. Fortunately, 
also, the natives first got across the open, but at the same 
time others completely hemmed them in. It was seen that 
all the men inside were armed; but they were at once 
warned that if a shot was fired they would be fired into all 
round, and the kraal burnt, so they unwillingly submitted. 
Major Marter dismounted, and, followed by his interpreter 
and some Dragoons, went in and demanded where the king 
was. Umkozana, the last chief who remained with the 
king, pointed to a hut at the other end, and they went 
there at once and told Cetywayo to come out. He refused, 
asked them to come in to him, wanted to know the rank of 
the of&cer in charge, and then requested them to shoot 
him. After some useless parleying, and as it was foohsh 
to lose time, he was threatened that unless he came out 
they would burn the kraal, and not until then did he come 
out. The first thing he said was that they would never 
have caught him if they had not come down the mountains, 
as he had spies on the flats, and thought it quite impossible 
for any troops but Zulus to come down the precipices at 



VETYWAYO A lUUSONER. 215 

the back. He was told liis life would be spared, but that 
he must go along with them as a prisoner to the white 
chief at Ulundi. They captured, besides the king and 
Umkozana, the headman of the kraal, six men-servants 
and one boy, and five women and one girl ; also four 
Martini-Henry's, lots of cartridges, fourteen other guns, 
and many relics of the 24th Eegiment, with a lot of the 
king's cooking and sleeping things. The king caused much 
intentional delay by walking as slowly as he could. 

In entering Ulundi six of the Dragoon Guards rode 
in front, followed by Natal Native Contingent men and one 
company of the 60th Eegiment ; then two Dragoon Guards, 
between whom walked Cetywayo, with another Dragoon 
close behind him. Natal Native Contingent, eight men 
of Lonsdale's Horse, and another company of the 60th 
Eegiment followed. Sir Garnet Wolseley did not go out 
to meet the last of the Zulu kings, as the prisoner had 
rejected and despised every overture. He was treated, not 
as a captured king, but as a mere fugitive from law and 
order. After a very short delay, the party again started, 
ostensibly for Pietermaritzburg via Eorke's Drift ; but the 
march had not proceeded long, when an express messenger 
galloped up from the general with an order to proceed with 
all speed to Fort Durnford. When Cetywayo arrived at 
Kwamagwaza, he said, " This is not the way to the 
Tugela," and knew at once that he would have to cross 
the sea. He became melancholy and abstracted. During 
the entire journey, he retained the quiet dignity for which 
he is remarkable. At Port Durnford a surf-boat was ready. 



216 HISTOBY OF THE ZULU WAIL 

into which the king and his party were placed and taken 
to the steamer Natal, which was waiting.* The sea was 
rough, and Cetywayo had to crawl on his hands and knees 
on hoard, while one of his people, overcome hy the terrors 
of the ocean, lay on his Jback in the sm-f-boat, and made 
signs that he desired to he killed. The gunboat Forester 
escorted the Natal to Simon's Bay, and thence to Table 
Bay, where Cetywayo and his wives were landed, and were 

* The king, the last to get on the gangway, did so by crawling up as the 
others had done, and when landed on deck gave vent to a sigh, whether of 
despondency or relief could only be guessed. He would not go near the 
ship's side, and grasped at the officer's hand to support him while standing 
on the deck. He was asked to look out to see the anchor weighed, but 
declined to do so, though manifesting a childlike curiosity about many 
things on board. Various trappings, such as blankets and mats, were 
brought on board, the king having two naattresses and two blankets 
supplied by the military, and the men and women one blanket and mattress 
each. The prisoners soon became reconciled to their situation on board, 
and began to manifest much interest in all they saw and heard. A kraal, 
about twelve feet square, was rigged up on the fore part of the poop deck, 
Avhere there was less motion to the ship and plenty of breeze. The king's 
women and servants were placed in here with himself, and were made as 
comfortable as possible. He retired to his kraal soon after coming on board, 
and did not come out till next day, when the officers showed him through 
the ship. He expressed his great surprise and admiration at many of the 
things he saw, and was especially struck with the machinery. He would 
not go down into the engine-room, but gave a token of his wonder at the 
works of the white men by giving utterance to the peculiar Kafir " Whouw ! " 
He could not comprehend the use of many of the appliances of the cabin, 
and although he believed the account given to him of how the ship was 
made, and how much it cost, the processes were a mystery to him and the 
amount a fable. His first question with regard to the ship was how old she 
was and " how many cattle she cost." He had a great objection to coming 
to the Cape, as his spies and messengers had brought up an evil report of 
the land in times past. Cetywayo expressed his perfect resignation to his 
fate, and said he knew from the first the war would end as it did, and that 
he himself would be the sufferer. He blamed his young men, whom he 
could not restrain at the beginning, and also blamed the English for pur- 
suing the war to its present conclusion. 



CETYWAYO'S PERSONAL APPEABANCE. 217 

lodged in the castle of Cape Town. Thus ended in a prison 
in the metropoHs of the Cape Colony the career of the last 
of the Zulu kings and the autonomy of the nation. The 
greatest and most powerful ruler of South Africa had defied 
Great Britain, and in his defeat fell once and for ever all 
the hopes of domination so long cherished among the native 
tribes of Southern Africa. 

In spite of his large proportions, Cetywayo is a hand- 
some man, of much dignity of aspect. His limbs are 
large, but symmetrical ; very broad chest, large and 
lustrous eyes, intelligent and not unamiable countenance. 
With plenty of food and j)erfect safety, he lost all inclina- 
tion to be shot. Speaking of the war, he took all the 
responsibility for the battle of Kambula, but declared that 
Ulundi was fought against his wish, and in consequence 
of the determination of his young men once more to try 
the arbitration of the sword. Now that his power is 
broken, he laughs to scorn the idea of any more fighting 
being possible against British rule. 

A great meeting was called by the white '^inkosi" (Sir 
Garnet) for the 1st of September — the same day, six years 
ago, on which Cetywayo was crowned. It was fitting that 
the anniversary of the day of promises never fulfilled should 
be also a day of atonement. Two hundred Zulus were 
seated a few^ paces from Sir Garnet's tent, and although 
naturally great talkers, the silence of death prevailed. 
Banged in rows four deep, with the principal chiefs in 
front, they listened with perfect attention to the words 
which decided the fate of their country and of themselves. 



218 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

Two of the king's brothers and the prinie minister of the 
king were present. At half-past four, Sir Garnet Wolseley 
left his tent, and, as he walked towards the assembly, 
was greeted with uplifted hands and shouts of ''Inkose." 
Leaning upon the hilt of his sword, he calmly gazed for 
a few moments upon the representatives of a conquered 
nation assembled to hear its doom. Mr. Shepstone inter- 
preted into Zulu sentence by sentence as Sir Garnet 
Wolseley spoke, as follows : — 

''It is six years ago on this very day, the 1st of Sep- 
tember, that Cetywayo was crowned King of the Zulus, and 
only yesterday you yourselves have seen him carried away 
a prisoner, never to return again to Zululand. On the 
occasion of his coronation Cetywayo made certain promises 
regarding laws to be observed in the future, which pro- 
mises he never fulfilled, and his country is now about 
to be divided into different chieftainships, and I hope his 
fate will be a warning to all of the chiefs not to follow in 
his footsteps, but to act according to the commands and 
terms given by the English Queen, who will most certainly 
punish any who do not do so. The interests and welfare 
of the South African races are very dear to the Queen, and 
she is anxious that the natives of this country should 
thrive, as those in Natal have done up to the present time. 
She will be lenient to faults arising from ignorance ; but 
although inclined, as I have said, to deal leniently when 
ignorance causes them to commit faults, those who per- 
sistently go contrary to good government and peace will 
assuredly be punished as Cetywayo has been. As they 



SIB GABNET WOLSELEY AND THE ZULUS. 219 

are aware, she lives far away ; but lier power is very great, 
and she is quite able to, and will, punish those who take 
life or make wars contrary to her orders. Cetywayo took 
the lives of his people for trivial offences, without giving 
them a chance of defending themselves, or allowing them 
a fair trial. This must cease. In future, trivial offences 
will be punishable by fines. Cetywayo kept on foot a large 
and powerful army, and did not allow his men to marry 
without his permission ; in future, the young men will be 
allowed to marry when and whom they like, provided 
always they have sufficient for the support of a wife, and 
the consent of the ghd's parents. Disobedience of this 
law is to be punishable by a fine inflicted by the headmen 
of the kraal. As Zululand is almost entirely surrounded 
by country under the Queen of England's rule, and not 
threatened in any way, there is no need of a larger army ; 
and in future no guns or ammunition will be allowed to be 
imported, or to be in the hands of any Zulu. Nor will any 
stores be permitted to be landed on the Zulu coast, in case, 
under the guise of merchandise, arms should be brought 
into the country. The young men are to be encouraged 
to labour, and are to be allowed to come and leave when 
they like; for only by work can they become rich and 
prosperous. Cetywayo encouraged witchcraft, and what 
*is known as 'smelling out.' That I look to the chiefs to 
put down, and an end to such ridiculous and foolish 
practices arrived at. Cetywayo, by this practice of witch- 
craft, caused many lives to be taken, and neither life nor 
property was safe. And each chief must clearly under- 



220 EISTOllY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

stand, before he signs his name to the treaty, that none 
of his x^eople must be taken without a fair trial before the 
chief being granted, and the accused being allowed to call 
his witnesses. In what I have said there is nothing new, 
though the young men may have forgotten; but these laws 
and customs held good before Chaka's ancient laws and 
usages introduced what is known as the military system. 
I intend leaving an English officer here as Eesident, to 
be the eyes and ears of England, to watch over the people, 
to see the laws observed, and that the chiefs rule with 
justice and equity. I am aware there are still a con- 
siderable number of rifles and guns of ours, as well as 
cattle scattered about the country, and those chiefs w^ho 
wish to stand well with the English Queen will lose no time 
in bringing them in and delivering them up to the British 
Eesident. 

"As they are well aware by their own rules of war 
and conquest, Zululand now belongs to the Queen of 
England. She has, however, already enough land in 
Africa, and so she has, through me as her representative, 
appointed certain chiefs to rule over districts w^hich I shall 
presently name. The chiefs elected must remember that 
this is an act of grace, and that what I am now doing 
in partitioning the country to various chiefs is only what 
Cetywayo has himself done in former times. They are 
well aware our laws, religion, and customs are very 
different to theirs, and the Queen has no wish to force 
ours upon them. As regards the laws and customs they 
are to be ruled by, they are to be those good and ancient 



GENERAL CREALOCKS COLUMN. 221 

ones in use before Chaka's time; but life and property 
is to be protected, and no life to be forfeited without a fair 
trial. As regards religion, there is no wish to force ours 
upon them, and missionary enterprise will not be encouraged 
contrary to the wish of the chief and people he proposes 
to reside amongst. The British Government is very 
anxious to prevent white people settling in the country, 
and no sale, transfer, or alienation of land will be permitted 
or recognized. I consider this a very important point, as 
in many instances land has been said by white people to 
have been purchased by them from the Zulus, and given 
rise to very serious complications. If, therefore, mis- 
sionaries do come and wish to reside among the people, 
all that can be permitted them to hold in land must be 
a small patch for their house and garden, but none what- 
ever must be alienated from the Zulu people, to whom 
it really belongs. Some of those I have intended to make 
chiefs, I am sorry to see, are not here to-day; but some 
who are here to-day will now sign a document, the purport 
of which I have now told you all ; and a duplicate of the 
treaty will be given to each chief to keep, and a similar 
one retained by me. The boundaries of the various chief- 
tainships will be told them, and will be clearly defined 
hereafter by officers sent round for that purpose." 

The first division, or coast column, under General Crea- 
lock, had not been opposed by the Zulus in the field. It 
established a series of fortified posts along the south coast 
of Zululand, opened a new base of supplies at Port Durn- 
ford, from which to feed a force operating against Ulundi, 



222 HIS TOBY OF THE ZULU WAR, 

destroyed the military kraal of Emangwene and the king's 
old military kraal at Ondini, besides clearing the coast 
district. By the 6th of July, all the great Zulu chiefs, with 
their people, from the Tugela river to St. Lucia Bay, had 
given in their submission. It was the coast column, under 
Pearson, which gained the battle of Inyezane, and had 
gallantly held-Ekowe for three months; and it was the 
coast column, more than any other, which had suffered 
from disease. Among General Crealock's valedictory re- 
marks are the following: — 

"July 17, 1879. 
''In notifying to the army in South Africa that Bri- 
gadier-General Wood, V.C., C.B., and Lieutenant- Colonel 
BuUer are about to leave Zululand for England, Sir 
Garnet Wolseley desires to place on record his high ap- 
preciation of the services they have rendered, and that 
their military abilities and untiring energy have materially 
tended to bring the war to an end. The success which 
has attended the operations of the flying column is largely 
due to General Wood's genius for war, to the admirable 
system w^hich he has established in his command, and to 
the zeal and energy with which his ably conceived plans 
have been carried out by Colonel Buller," 

Brigadiee-General Wood's Oeders. 

"The Brigadier-General proposes, weather permitting, 
to leave for Pietermaritzburg to-morrow. In saying good- 
bye to the soldiers of all ranks, he wishes io express his 
warm gratitude for the support he has invariably received. 



GENEBAL^ WOOD'S FAB E WELL. 223 

The Brigadier- General has gained the commendation of 
his superiors for the successful operations of the flying 
column ; he feels that the credit he has so obtained has 
been gained by the courage and untiring devotion to duty 
of his fellow-soldiers, and he will never forget his comrades 
of the flying column." 

It is right to quote the following orders respecting two 
distinguished officers of the war : — 

'' The troops and Naval Brigade forming the first divi- 
sion must be content with the conviction that their gal- 
lantry in the earlier part of this war has probably 
diminished the opposition of the Zulus in this country. 

*' You must be content with the honest conviction that 
your hard work and energy, under very great difficulties, 
and with your ranks thinned day by day with sickness and 
fever, has successfully carried out the task set you by Lord 
Chelmsford to perform ; and, thanks to the valuable assist- 
ance and co-operation of Commodore Eichards and the 
Naval Brigade, you have established the landing-place 
opened at Port Durnford, which will enable further opera- 
tions towards the capital to be carried out with facility 
should they become necessary. 

" Soldiers and sailors of the first division, I thank you 
all for your good conduct, your hard works; and sympa- 
thize with you in the loss of so many comrades whose 
lives have been sacrificed to this climate, so deadly to 
man and beast. We have all had great difficulties to over- 
come. 

*' I wish you all a hearty ' good-bye ; ' I wish you success 



224 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

and prosperity wherever your duty to her Majesty may 
lead you." * 

It would be uninteresting to go into details with respect 
to the movements of the columns under Colonels Villiers 
and Baker Eussell. Mahabolin and other Magulisin chiefs 
surrendered, Manyonyoba asked terms of the commanding 
officer at Luneberg, and the various scattered embers left 

* The following were the orders as to the movements of the troops : — 

To England. 

Royal Engineers. — C Troop, 6 officers, 160 men ; and 7th Company, 3 
officers, 80 men, when transport available. To concentrate at Pinetown 
when relieved from Transvaal. 

Army Service Corps. — 750 men, when transport available, concentrate 
at Pinetown, according as companies can be spared, probably some time yet. 
All waggons will eventually be sent to England. 

Army Hospital Corps. — 350 men. To be withdrawn and concentrated at 
Pinetown, as portions can be spared from duty, into troopships. 

Probably England. 

3-60th Pegiment. — 80 officers, 920 men. To sail when transport is 
available, concentrating at Pinetown. 

2-4th Eegiment. — 28 officers, 970 men, 3 officers' wives, 37 women, 57 
children. Ditto, ditto. 

To India. 

17th Lancers. — 24 officers, 455 men, 18 horses. To sail first week in 
October, per Crocodile and Berapis. Concentrate at Pinetown^ 

Royal Artillery. — M Battery, 6th Brigade, 5 officers, 157 men ; Battery, 
6th Brigade, 5 officers, 157 men. Ditto. 

88th Eegiment. — 23 officers, 664 men, 4 officers' wives, 50 women, 87 
children. Ditto. This does not include two companies at Mauritius. 

90th Regiment. — 23 officers, 886 men, 3 officers' wives, 35 women, 57 
children. Ditto. 

To Mauritius. 

91st Eegiment. — 2 companies, 6 officers, 24-3 men. Sail first week in 
October, per Crocodile and Serapis. Concentrate at Pinetown. 

Eoyal Artillery. — lOth Battery, 7th Brigade, 4 officers, 110 men. Ditto. 

To Singapore. 
2-3rd Eegiment. — 26 officers, 800 men. End of September, per Orontes. 
Concentrate at Pinetown. 



ZULULAND AND TEE NEW CHIEFS. 225 

after the great war conflagration were soon extinguished 
in the north. In September Zululand was most thoroughly 
conquered. On the 1st of September, John Dunn, Um- 
gayna, Usibilo, Umcitsobu, Somkelu, and Gonzi signed 
the terms upon which they accepted chieftainship ; Oham 
and others were proclaimed at a later date. The principal 
undertakings and conditions were that the chiefs should 
respect the boundaries assigned; abolish the military 
system ; allow all men to marry and work as they will ; 
prohibit importation of arms ; take no life without fair 
trial ; discontinue witchcraft ; surrender fugitive criminals 
from British territory ; make no war without the sanction 
of Government ; prevent sale or alienation of land ; arbi- 
tration to be appealed to in case of disputes with British 
subjects. The succession to chieftainships to be dependent 
on approval of our Government. 

The following is an exact summary of the terms and 
conditions signed in duplicate by all the newly appointed 
chiefs in Zululand at Ulundi, September 1, 1879. The 
prelude and ending are verbatim ; terms and conditions 
summarized : — 

I recognize the victory of British arms over the Zulu 
nation and the full right and title of her Majesty Queen 
Victoria, Queen of England and Empress of India, to 
deal as she may think fit with the Zulu chiefs and the 
people, and with the Zulu country ; and I agree and 
hereby signify my agreement to accept from General Sir 
Garnet Joseph Wolseley, G.C.M.G. and K.C.B., as the 

Q 



226 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

representative of her Majesty Queen Victoria, the chieftain- 
ship of a territory of Zululand, to be known hereafter 

as , subject to the following terms, conditions, and 

limitations : — 

Terms, conditions, and limitations laid down by General 
Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., and 

assented to by me , as the terms, conditions, and 

limitations subject to which I agree to accept the 
chieftainship of the aforesaid territory. 

1. To observe and respect whatever boundaries shall 
be assigned to my territory by the British Government 
through the Kesident of the division in which his territorv 
is situated. 

2. Not to permit the existence of the Zulu military 
system or the existence of any- military system or organi- 
sation whatsoever within my territory ; to proclaim and 
make it a rule that all men shall be allowed to marry when 
they choose and as they choose, according to the good and 
ancient customs of his people known and followed in the 
days preceding the establishment by Chaka of the military 
system, and to allow and encourage all men living within 
his territory to go and come freely for peaceful purposes, 
and to work in Natal or in the Transvaal or elsewhere for 
themselves or for hire. 

3. Not to import or allow to be imported into his terri- 
tory by any person, for any object whatsoever, fire-arms, or 
other goods of any description, and ammunition fi'om any 



SIB GARNET WOLSELETS CONDITIONS. 227 

port, inland or sea-coast, and to confiscate all such goods or 
arms, etc., as come in, fining the owners or possessors of 
them with heavy fine or such other punishment as may be 
allowed. 

4. Not to allow life to be taken on any pretence without 
trial before the council of chiefsmen, allowing fair and 
impartial examination of witnesses in the chiefs presence, 
and further not to permit of witchcraft or witch-doctors, or 
" smelling out." 

5. To surrender all fugitives demanded by British 
Government flying from the laws, and to prevent their 
coming into Zululand, and if in, to exert himself and his 
people to catch them. 

6. Not to make war on any other chiefs without the 
sanction of the British Government through the Kesident of 
the district. 

7. The succession to the chieftainship to be decided by 
ancient laws and customs, and nominations of successors 
to be submitted for approval of Government. 

8. Not to sell or alienate the land. 

9. To permit all people now in the district to remain 
upon recognition of his power, and any wishing to leave to 
be allowed to do so. 

10. In all cases of dispute in which British subjects are 
concerned, to appeal and decide by decision of British Eesi- 
dent, and in other cases not to punish until approved of by 
Eesident. 

11. In all cases not included in the above, or in any 



228 HIS TOBY OF THE ZULU WAS. 

doubt or uncertainty, to govern and decide in accordance 
with ancient laws. 

These terms, conditions, and Kmitations I engage, and 
I hereby solemnly pledge my faith, to abide by and respect 
in letter or in spirit without qualification or reserve. 
Signed at Ulundi on the 1st day of September, 1879. 

Chief his X mark. 

Induna Do. 

General commanding her Majesty's forces in South Africa, 
and High Commissioner for South-E astern Africa. 
Signed by John Shepstone as witness of the correct 
interpretation by him and thorough knowledge of the 
contents of the document the chief has signed. 

On the 12th of September Major-General Clifford was 
able to notify that Colonels Villiers' and Eussell's columns 
were in course of being broken up, after they had thoroughly 
patrolled the Makulusi district and found all quiet. Oham 
had returned to his own territory, accompanied by Wheel- 
wright, who was appointed to act as Kesident in Zululand. 
Mongodhla had been driven from his caves and his cattle 
captured, while his brother had surrendered at Luneburg. 
Two companies of the 24th Eegiment, ordered to encamp at 
Isandhlwana, removed the last vestiges of the camp, buried 
any bodies remaining above ground, and erected cairns of 
stones over the graves of the troops who fell there. More 
than 5000 guns had been taken, or surrendered by Zulus. 
Sir Garnet Wolseley did his work thoroughly. Troops 



JOHN BUNK 229 

were despatched against Sekukuni, and Sir Garnet himself 
proceeded to the Transvaal, in order to subdue discontent 
among the inhabitants, and establish a settled system of 
government. It is not necessary to follow him there. 

With the conclusion of the Zulu war this book must termi- 
nate. As regards the political adjustment of affairs in Zulu- 
land, the directions of the Home Government, were no doubt, 
implicitly obeyed. The country was made self-supporting 
in a military point of view, and the chiefs, with their tribes, 
were so disposed as to form a barrier against hostile aggres- 
sion. John Dunn, who was a Christian renegade, living as 
a Zulu in polygamic life, but whose influence was supreme 
throughout the country, was placed as chief over South- 
E astern Zululand. One of his first steps was the prohibi- 
tion of all missionaries in the country in which he holds 
sway. Over Sirayo's country near the border, extending to 
the foot of the Drakenberg, the chief Hlubi was appointed, 
about whose tried fidelity and loyalty there can be no ques- 
tion. Oham occupies the region between the Pongolo and 
the Black Umvolosi. Mnyame, the late king's prime min- 
ister, is established near him, and, it is to be hoped, will 
not hatch plots for the establishment of Oham on the 
throne of his brother. '' Zululand for the Zulus " has been 
the motto for this arrangement, but hopeless heathenism 
has been riveted as chains upon the people. Missionary 
enterprise is discom^aged and even forbidden, while all the 
evils of tribal rule are virtually perpetuated. It has been 
said with some fancy, but great exactitude, that the new 



230 HISTORY OF THE ZULU WAR. 

dispensation realizes the description of the country given 
by Tennyson in "Locksley Hall" — 

" Never comes the trader, never floats an European flag, 
Slides the bird o'er lustrous woodland, swings the trailer from the crag. 

* 4: :): * * # 

There methinks would be enjoyment more than in this march of mind. 

* * * if * # 

The passions cramped no longer shall have scope and breathing-space." 

Savage women shall be taken to rear dusky races. 
Polygamy receives approval. Missionaries are forbidden ; 
and, strange to say, all this is really done in consequence of 
the efforts of the Exeter Hall zealots, who have denounced 
Sir Bartle Frere and the colonists from the beginning, 
lauded the heathens, and strenuously objected to any as- 
sumption of their territory. The toleration of heathenism 
is both a blunder and a crime, which, if not stopped in 
time, must result in disastrous consequences. 



APPENDIX. 



-*o*- 



CAPE COLONISTS VERSUS NATIVES. 
(^Articles jpuhlished in the P.E. Telegraph.) 

I. 

It is an axiom that history repeats itself, and historical studies, 
therefore, become particularly useful in a political crisis like the 
present, when the policy of Sir Bartle Frere towards the native 
tribes of South Africa has been condemned by the Home Govern- 
ment. In aU parts of the world a tragedy is enacted when bar- 
barism and civilization come into contact. It was so with the 
Puritans, whose pioneers landed in North America from the May- 
flower ; it is so with the Dutch and the natives of Java, with the 
British and the Maoris, with the French and the people of New 
Caledonia. Wherever, throughout the world, colonization takes 
place among savages there must be war, or there can be no safety 
or progress. When the Dutch formed a settlement on the shores 
of Table Bay in 1652, it was neither their interest nor their wish 
tofight, but it was perfectly impossible to avoid it. Although a 
mere place of call for outward and homeward-bound ships was 
required, yet it soon became apparent that not merely as a sequence 
of successful defence, but as a means of protection, it was requisite 
to annex conquered territory. The Hottentots were the first 
enemies of Europeans in South Africa, and the Kafirs — themselves 
aggressors — were the second. The latter people were robbers by 
profession, and an organized system of plunder continually harassed 
the border farmers of the colony. 

The first act of the present tragedy of Kafir war waged against 



232 APPENDIX. 

Great Britain took place in 1811, when constant depredations on 
the part of the Kafirs made it necessary either to repel the enemy 
or to abandon the country. The latter system of tactics was not 
then in vogue among the countrymen of Nelson and Wellington, 
therefore a large force under Colonel Graham was despatched to 
the front. Landdrost Stockenstrom, who accompanied this force, 
rode up to a party of the natives and urgently endeavoured to 
secure peace. In reply he was stabbed to death, and fourteen of 
the men who accompanied him were likewise murdered. Of course 
the Kafirs were chastised, but the snake was only scotched, not 
killed, and in 1816 the colonial frontier farmers were so plundered 
by the natives that they were forced to state to Government that 
they would have to abandon their farms unless effectively pro- 
tected. As a result, Lord Charles Somerset held a solemn con- 
ference with Gaika and other great chiefs in April, 1817, which 
was followed by a solemn treaty of peace. Those solemn farces 
must have been sources of immense amusement to the savages. 
Gaika gave pledges with the utmost readiness — there was no 
difficulty whatever. Honesty and justice were in future to pre- 
vail ; the people of the kraal to which stolen cattle were traced 
should always be held responsible, and reparation was always to 
be made instanter. Presents were lavished upon the " Paramount" 
Chief, and then (in the words of the Rev. Mr. Williams) " Gaika 
fled instantly to the other side of the Kat river like a thief," 
plundering was soon vigorously recommenced, and the idea of 
restitution became almost as great a joke as the treaty of peace. 
In 1818 the chief T'Slambie positively refused to restore cattle 
traced to his kraal. Afterv/ards, to gain time, he promised, and 
then, of course, broke his promise. War was once more forced 
upon the authorities, and this time the contest was a serious one. 
While military operations were going on in Kafirland, the con- 
federate chiefs got behind our forces, drove in the small military 
posts, and ravaged the frontier districts. Incited to fanaticism 
by the witch-doctor Mokanna, or Lynx, 9000 savages impetuously 
attacked the head-quarters of the military at Graham's Town, and 
it was only by means of desperate fighting that the town was saved. 



APPENDIX. 233 

Soon afterwards another solemn treaty was made, in which it was 
agreed that all Kafirs should evacuate the country between the 
Great Fish and Keiskamma rivers, and that this territory should 
remain neutral and unoccupied. The usual sequence occurred, the 
treaty was laughed at and violated by our enemies at the earliest 
possible moment. Downing Street invariably looked upon the 
Kafirs in the light of honourable belligerents, and the unfortunate 
colonists as grasping, unscrupulous men. An outrageous divorce 
was constituted between truth and justice on the one side, and 
so-called philanthropy on the other, and the people of the Cape 
Colony had to suffer the heavy and bitter penalties of this extra- 
ordinary ignorance and fatuity. The course of events from first to 
last has been very simple. It rnust be borne in mind that the 
South African Kafir wars constitute one tragedy in various acts, 
with intervals of unequal duration. The war with Cetywayo is 
identical in principle with those waged with Gaika, T'Slambie, 
Dingaan, Kreli, and Sandilli. By immense exertions the tide of 
savagery has been periodically rolled back, and if wise counsel had 
been followed, the war of 1835 would have been final; but 
Downing Street intervened, and it is to the disastrous fatuous 
policy then adopted that we owe the wars of 1846 and 1852. It 
is to this intervention, and to this policy, that we desire in this 
article, and in others that are to follow, specially to draw attention, 
because the part taken by Sir Benjamin D'Urban in 1836 is now 
filled by Sir Bartle Frere in 1879 ; and the character of Lord 
Glenelg, who declared that " the Kafirs had ample justification in 
the late war," seems likely to be attempted by the gentleman who 
is at present her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the 
Co\om.QB.—A])ril 22, 1879. 



II- 

The Kafir war of 1835 was exceedingly disastrous to the colonists. 
Shortly after it had commenced Colonel Smith (afterwards Sir 
Harry Smith) wrote : " Already are 7000 persons dependent upon 
the Government for the necessaries of life. The land is filled with 



234 APPENDIX. 

the lamentations of the mdows and the fatherless. The indelible 
impressions already made upon myself by the horrors of an irrup- 
tion of savages upon a scattered population, almost exclusively 
engaged in the peaceful occupation of husbandry, are such as make 
me look on those I have witnessed in a service of thirty years as 
trifles to what I have now witnessed." The Kafirs were on this 
occasion, as on every other, the aggressors, and plunder was the 
principal motive of the war. Fifteen years previously Great 
Britain had taken the responsibility of settling 5000 of her subjects 
in the frontier districts of the Cape Colony, and then defence and 
protection became both the duty and the interest of the home 
country. With great exertions and after immense loss the war was 
brought to a close. As a glorious trophy of the war no fewer than 
15,000 Fingoes were literally saved from cruel captivity. The 
Moses who led them out of their house of bondage was Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban, and it was this wise and enlightened Governor 
who annexed the province of Queen Adelaide, and determined that 
the liberated people should be placed in this territory, so as to form 
"the best barrier against the entrance of the Kafirs into the great 
Fish Kiver jungle." This extensive bush was the " quadrilateral " 
of the Kafirs, and it was only acquired by the best blood of the 
British and colonial troops. 

During the whole period of the war of 1835 a very small section 
of colonists had endeavoured to poison the minds of our Downing 
Street rulers. Their arguments were based on several fictions, 
including affirmations about violence on the part of colonists having 
begot violence on the part of Kafirs, and that the great body of 
Kafirs had never offended us. They even went so far as to make 
use of glaring untruths respecting Hintza not having been engaged 
in the war, and misled Lord Glenelg so much respecting the par- 
ticulars of that chief's death as to induce his lordship to make use 
of expressions which he was afterwards compelled to retract. A 
steady fire of prejudice, fed by preconceived ideas, constantly 
existed at home in favour of the Kafir tribes — and indeed all 
savages — which required very little effort to turn into a consuming 
fire of anger and indignation. These little eff'orts were sedulously 



APPENDIX. 235 

made and constantly continued in South Africa with, the most 
disastrous results. A number of well-meaning and prejudiced men, 
who can be styled the Exeter Hall party, declaimed with virulence 
against the colonists, and unfortunately Lord Glenelg was enrolled 
among their number. This nobleman evidently considered that 
humanitarian efforts were due to savages only, not to colonists, and 
through his contemptible folly became the means of inflicting the 
most severe injuries upon both. Sir Benjamin D'Urban, who was 
completely master of the situation, and had proved himself an 
honest and wise administrator, was entirely ignored, his policy was 
stigmatized in the most insulting manner, and the sentimental ideas 
of theorists made to take its place. In a despatch, dated 28th 
December, 1835, the Secretary of State entirely exculpates the 
Kafirs and censures both Sir Benjamin D'Urban and the colonists. 
He says : " In the conduct which was pursued towards the Kafir 
nation by the colonists, and the public authorities of the colony, 
through a long series of years, the Kafirs had ample justification 
of the late war ; they had a perfect right to hazard the experiment, 
however hopeless, of extorting by force that redress which they 
could not expect otherwise to obtain ; and the claim of sovereignty 
over the new province, bounded by the Keiskamma and the Kei, 
must be renounced. It rests upon a conquest resulting from a war 
in which, as far as I am at present able to judge, the original 
justice is on the side of the conquered, not of the conquering party." 
The governor is severely reproved for styling the Kafirs " irre- 
claimable savages," and the Wesleyan missionaries are also cen- 
sured. As a sequence the whole country between the Fish and 
Buffalo rivers had to be handed over to the Kafirs, although that 
portion of this territory which extended between the Fish and 
Keiskamma rivers had been ceded by Gaika to the colony so far 
back as the year 1819, and was therefore not conquered in the 
recent war. The extraordinary fatuity of this course, judged from 
a military point of view, is evident from the description of the 
boundary furnished by Major Charters, military secretary to Sir 
George Napier. This able officer says : " The line of frontier is all 
in favour of the Kafirs ; a dense jungle — the medium breadth is 



236 APPENDIX. 

about five miles — torn and intersected by deep ravines, a great part 
impenetrable except to Kafirs and wild beasts, occupies about one 
hundred miles of frontier, following the sinuosities of the Great 
Fish river. The whole British army would be insufiicient to guard 
it." In fact, this country comprised what, by analogy, may be 
styled the Kafir quadrilateral, or combination of almost impregnable 
fortresses. British and colonial blood had to be poured out as 
water in the wars of 1845 and 1852 to recapture this country ; but 
fanaticism and prejudice are always impervious to argument. 
''Their blood be upon us and upon our children" is a sentence 
often repeated in history, so when the Waterloo veteran and gallant 
British soldier. Sir Benjamin D'Urban, was dismissed for doing his 
duty. Lord Glenelg defiantly wrote, "You announce to me the 
abandonment of the province of Adelaide and cast on me the 
resj)onsibility of all the consequent disasters you predict. I am 
perfectly ready to take upon myself the sole and exclusive re- 
sponsibility on this occasion." 

It is difficult to find language suJOSciently strong to stigmatize 
the base perfidy and fatuous incompetency of the Glenelg policy. 
A colony is acquired and its people exchange allegiance for pro- 
tection ; later on 5000 British emigrants are placed in its frontier 
districts. The savages in and beyond the borders of this country 
are numerically far superior to our own subjects, and systematically 
send in plundering bands who devastate the country and impoverish 
the farmers. It is these savages who make war, and in defence it 
is at last absolutely necessary either to repel the invaders or to 
abandon the country. The case, let it be remembered, is not one 
of emigrants seizing a country and then applying for protection. 
It is the British Government which established its sovereignty first 
and sent its emigrants afterwards. With immense exertion, and 
at the cost of much blood and treasure, the savage tide is pushed 
back — and then Lord Glenelg deliberately makes it flow again over 
the conquered country, perfidiously becomes the ally and friend of 
the savages and creates a cruel necessity — no other than that 
of doing the work over again in the bloody wars of 1845 and 1852. 
There is scarcely anything in history to form a parallel to this gross 



APPENDIX. 237 

injustice and perfidy. Yet at tlie present moment a large party of 
fanatical " philanthropists " in England are crying out for a repeti- 
tion of the same policy in ISTatal. The tide will be pushed back to 
Cetywayo's kraal, but we must abandon the country after we 
conquer it. The Zulu King made the war, and it is as purely one 
of righteous self-defence as any ever waged in the world ; yet we are 
told that the colonists provoked it and are responsible for it ! Sir 
Bartle Frere is to be converted into Sir Benjamin D'Urban ! and a 
new edition of the Glenelg policy must be adopted by her Majesty's 
Government! — A^pril 25, 1879. 



III. 

Lord Glenelg emphatically stated that the Kafirs had perfect 
justification for the war of 1835, and this affirmation was the 
foundation of his entire policy. He identified himseK with the 
pseudo-philanthropists who looked upon the white inhabitants of 
the Eastern districts as usurpers and persecutors. The ideas 
of 1836 remain substantially the ideas of 1879, the only difference 
being that the venue is changed and that the tide of savagery has 
been pushed further eastward. The settlers of 1820 were placed 
by the British Government on the frontier of the Cape Colony, and 
on their part and that of their descendants there was certainly no 
usurpation, while it positively seems to be the result of monomania 
to speak of their having persecuted the Kafirs. The incontestable 
facts of history prove exactly the opposite : it was the Kafirs that 
harassed and persecuted them. A comparatively small, struggling, 
and sparsely settled community was persistently tormented and 
impoverished by most cruel thefts and constant aggressions, which 
at last culminated in wars of defence most disastrous to the farmers 
and the principal portion of the settlers. The stock, dwellings, 
etc., of the poor border population destroyed in the war of 1835 
alone were valued at upwards of £280,000 ! This was a cruel, 
terrible infliction on those poor settlers, but it was not considered 
enough by the Exeter Hall party. Christianity was blasphemed by 
a policy of the grossest injustice adopted in its name. Those who 



238 APPENDIX. 

were bound by every tie of justice — putting aside charity — to 
defend tlieir own countrymen turned against them most virulently, 
and did everything in their power to cause the re-enactment of the 
bloody scenes in which British settlers in this distant land had 
suffered so much. 

In Mr. Godlonton's " Case for the Colonists " there is abundant 
proof of the facts already adduced. The Kafirs were the aggressors 
and the colonists the sufferers. Gross injustice, faithlessness, 
rapine, and fraud — or in other words, savagery — had to be grappled 
with, repelled, and conquered in the Cape Colony, and the pseudo- 
philanthropists of England, headed by Lord Glenelg, did everything 
in their power to aid and assist the latter cause. Perhaps the most 
clear proof of the error of the British policy on which we are now 
animadverting may be found in the evidence of one of Lord 
Glenelg' s chosen men and champions. Sir George Napier was 
sent out specially to reverse the policy of Sir Benjamin D'Urban. 
In answer to a Port Elizabeth address, he said, "I decidedly tell 
you that I accepted the government of this colony in the conviction 
that the former system, as regarded our Kafir neighbours, was 
erroneous ; and I am come out here, agreeing in, and determined 
to support, the system of policy pursued by the Lieutenant- 
Governor of these districts (Captain Stockenstrom) in accordance 
with the instructions which his Honour and myseK have received 
from her Majesty's Secretary of State (Lord Glenelg)." Nothing 
can be clearer than this, or more decided ; but when Sir George 
Napier learnt the facts of the case, the mist of prejudice dropped 
from his eyes. Most fortunately, this officer was an honest man, 
and dared to give his testimony in favour of the truth in spite of 
his employers in England. He found that the policy he had been 
directed to carry out " shocked one's natural sense of justice " (these 
are his own words), and that he had been completely duped and 
deceived. Keferring to the aggressions of the Kafirs, Sir George 
Napier says, " It would not be just to pass over the fact that while 
much loss has been sustained by the colonists, as stated in the 
official returns, I am not aware, except in one instance — and that 
one of no importance — that any aggression has been committed by 



APPENDIX. 239 

the border colonists against the persons or property of the neighbour- 
ing tribes." It was at Port Elizabeth, and in the month of October, 
1840, that Sir George Napier forcibly admitted that the Glenelg 
treaties "seem to shock our sense of natural justice, and to be 
unsupported by any considerations of sound policy." Speaking 
subsequently to a gathering of the Slambie and Congo tribes of 
Kafirs at Fort Peddie, his Excellency said, " You have sustained 
no bad treatment on the part of the colonists, and I now appeal 
to you whether the colonists have not kept their part of the treaties 
ever since they were made 1 I ask if there has been a single act of 
injustice of which you have any reason to complain on the part 
of the Government and the colonists % You will answer, None. I 
therefore appeal to you for justice towards the colonists." In fact, 
Sir George Napier was forced to thoroughly change his opinions, 
and it is unnecessary to multiply proofs of this well-known fact. 
Would to God that Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, or even Sir Charles 
Dilke, could come out to South Africa and report to the Home 
Government so as to avert the awful catastrophe of surrendering 
conquered Zululand to Cety wayo ! This would be a suicide greater 
in extent and more terrible even in its consequences than the 
surrender of the province of Queen Adelaide by Lord Glenelg. 
But surely if the world had been searched no more reliable man 
than Sir Bartle Frere could have been chosen. He is a most 
upright, wise, and experienced administrator ; the friend of her 
Majesty the Queen, and himself distinguished for all the qualities 
which make men respected and trusted. He belongs to the 
"Aborigines' Protection Society," and is in all respects above 
suspicion, yet his most positive assurances weigh lightly in the 
balance against the monomania existing among certain classes in 
Europe, that savages must be right and colonists invariably wrong. 
It is a bitter reflection that Zulu savagery finds its best allies among 
the very people from whom we spring, and that the most deadly 
enemies of the white people of South Africa are literally " those of 
their own household." 

One of the most able newspapers in South Africa echoes the 
sentiments of Lord Glenelg, Dr. Philip, and Bishop Colenso. It 



240 APPENDIX. 

declares against annexation, and also against interference with tlie 
usages of the native chiefs. It is said that to rule the Zulus 
through their chiefs is the policy of her Majesty's Ministers. The 
extraordinary admission is added that " order will be found better 
than caprice and the law better than individual notions of right." 
Surely we must admit that the rule of chiefs is purely a rule of 
absolute caprice, and that the history of Cetywayo's government 
specially proves it. The will of the monarch is the law of the land, 
and bloody sacrifices constantly connected with witchcraft are purely 
the effects of cruel and avaricious caprice. The entire history of 
South Africa shows the folly and cruelty of the policy advocated by 
the enemies of Sir Eartle Frere. No careful student of Cape history 
can fail to see that the Glenelg plan of non-annexation was most 
disastrous, while it was only when the power of the Gaika and 
Gcaleka chiefs had been finally taken from them — and not till then 
— that the people of this country, whites as well as blacks, could 
hope to be finally released from the fearful curse of recurring thefts, 
bloodshed, and wars. In fact history teaches plainly that to secure 
peace, prosperity, and happiness to all the people of Southern Africa 
it is absolutely necessary : (1.) To secure territorial guarantees, 
such as those justly acquired in a war of defence by Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban. (2.) To create a firmly knit and strong confederation of 
colonies and states in which the Queen and just laws shall be 
supreme, to the exclusion of witchcraft and the caprice of chiefs. 

Incidentally, we may be permitted to illustrate what is really 
meant by this ''rule of chiefs." Everyone knows that diabolical 
and wholesale slaughter is a characteristic of the rule of all Zulu 
potentates. Dingaan, Panda, Cetywayo, are all alike in this par- 
ticular. It is the system as much as the men that we have to 
blame. Perhaps there is no more distinguishing proof of constant 
cold-blooded and revolting cruelty arising directly and constantly 
from the rule of chiefs than in the administration of the laws of 
witchcraft. One example out of hundreds is sufficient. Missionaries 
from time to time publish most revolting cases, but they are aU of 
the same type, and merely as a sample we refer our readers to the 
one alluded to by Mr. Godlonton, at page 99 of his " Case for the 



APPENDIX. 241 

Colonists." The son of a cMef was sick, and a man of property was 
immediately selected for torture and death, simply because the witch- 
doctor said that it was under his evil influence that the sick man 
was suffering. He begged and prayed for instant death, but of 
course that boon is never granted. First of all the victim was held 
to the ground, and several men pierced his body all over with Kafir 
needles, two or three inches deep. The victim bore this with extra- 
ordinary resolution, and his tormentors became tired, complaining of 
the pain it gave their hands, and of the needles or skewers bending. 
By this time a fire was kindled, into which large square stones were 
placed to heat. His wife having first been cruelly beaten and ill- 
treated, the victim was brought to the fire, laid on his back, with 
his feet and hands tied to pegs driven into the ground. When the 
stones became as hot as possible, they were placed upon his groin, 
stomach, and chest. Then the scorching and broiling of the body 
went on, the stones occasionally slipping off, and being immediately 
replaced and held on by sticks. These awful tortures lasted from 
10 a.m. to 6 p.m., when the unfortunate victim of the benefit of the 
rule of the chiefs in South Africa breathed his last. We are asked 
to perpetuate this system, and to surrender any conquered country 
in Zululand, so that savagery may still continue without interruption, 
and we may reap in Zululand from the policy of 1879 the fruits 
obtained in 1845 and 1852 from the Glenelg policy of 1836. — 
A;pril 29, 1879. 



IV. 

The great question of Sir Bartle Frere's native and Zulu poKcy is 
easily narrowed. His Excellency believes in abolishing the power 
of chiefs, and in obtaining after defensive war adequate territorial 
guarantees. The opposite policy has, undoubtedly, caused the wars 
oi 1845, 1852, and 1877. The relinquishment of the province of 
Queen Adelaide by Lord Glenelg necessitated its reconquest, and 
the system of endeavouring to rule through the medium of chiefs 
has resulted in disastrous failure. A chief is necessarily antagonistic 
to civilization : all his power, influence, and means are obtained from 

R 



242 APPENDIX. 

savagery, and it is this latter system it is his interest to foster and 
to continue. But for the astuteness and ability of Sir George Grey 
Kreli would undoubtedly have thrown us into a serious war in 1857. 
This great chief ordered cattle to be slaughtered in such a manner 
as to prove that he had even determined to " burn his ships." 
Emissaries were despatched to Moshesh, to Taku, and to the Tarn- 
bookies. A witch-doctor was used as a tool in the usual manner, so 
as to stir up the people by means of superstition, and the system, 
whose continuance is advocated by a party, only failed because of 
the checkmate movements of the Governor. Subsequently, it was 
purely the continuance of the system of the chiefs that led us into 
the war of 1877. If their power had been abolished, as it should 
have been, great calamities would have been averted from their own 
people and from the Cape Colony. A careful honest study of 
colonial history is all that is necessary to prove to demonstration 
that weak half -measures with Kafirs are as irrational and absurd as 
they are cruel. When we conquer we are bound to take away 
entirely the pernicious powers of the chiefs, as well as to retain such 
land guarantees as are really necessary for future safety. Those 
who advocate this sound, wise policy are real philanthropists, sub- 
stituting justice and sound ideas for theoretical ideas, founded for 
the most part upon that worst description of ignorance which is 
founded upon prejudice and pre-conceived ideas. 

One argument brought forward against Confederation is based 
upon the lowest possible motives. It is the pockets, not the heads 
or hearts, to which this earnest appeal is made. One great Govern- 
ment in South Africa with provincial administrations will really be 
too expensive ! Besides, an objection is taken to the removal of the 
liability under which the British Government labours at present. 
Let the Home country continue to lose its best blood and treasure 
rather than we should lose our money. A great strong Confederation 
would put an end to Kafir wars by putting an end to the possibility 
of their success, but lest we should have to pay a few more taxes 
the British ratepayers' purses and the British soldiers' bodies must 
continue to bleed. This infamous policy is not worthy of the 
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. We have attained our majority 



APPENDIX. 243 

as children of the Empire, and we must be prepared to resume our 
own responsibilities. These, unquestionably, include self-defence, 
and to make that efficient the fable of the bundle of sticks must be 
exemplified in the close union of all our states and colonies. Nothing 
is more clear than the fact that all South Africa is like a draught- 
board — the blacks are on one side, the whites on the other. There 
is no separating the interests of either combatants, so that when 
Cetywayo fights against Natal, he fights against this colony as well 
as against the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. But real 
economy is always attended by a sound and statesmanlike system of 
Government. There would be no recurrence of native wars under 
Confederation, and this alone would be a source of great economy 
and great prosperity. South Africa, not Downing Street, would 
conduct its own native policy, and there would be then no fear of 
the recurrence of such a policy as that of Lord Glenelg. At present 
we are not safe, and the sooner such a period of incertitude and 
danger is terminated the better for the taxpayers here and in Eng- 
land. Are the people of this country not able to govern themselves 
in a Confederation 1 The history of the separate states and colonies 
proves the contrary. If we are able we ought to be willing, as such 
a union means against the natives invincible strength, and conse- 
quently both peace and economy. Above all things we ought to 
relieve ourselves from the curse of being perpetually exposed to the 
meddling and muddling of our native policy. Fatuous incompetency, 
such as that of Lord Glenelg, is quite enough to ruin half a dozen 
colonies, and we really can never be quite sure that it will not be 
renewed. 

A reference to Sir Bartle Frere's instructions proves very 
clearly that his Excellency had incomparably more power than any 
previous Governor- General or High Commissioner, and in acting as 
he did under carte hlanche authority, in no way exceeded his 
powers. He had to choose between allowing the Zulu despot to 
make war when he wished and in what manner he chose, or in 
checkmating him by early action. The latter policy has been 
adopted with Cetywayo as it was with Kreli, and in spite of a 
temporary check will be the means of effectively protecting the 



244 APPENDIX. 

interests both of the British colonists and the British crown. 
England never had a more faithful or conscientious officer than 
Sir Bartle Frere, and a time will come when on the page of history 
his name, with those of Sir Benjamin D'Urban and Sir George 
Grey, will be blazoned as the greatest and most enlightened states- 
men who ever ruled in Southern Africa. "After me, the Deluge," 
would have been a convenient and very safe motto for each of these 
men, but they scorned the wretched time-serving policy of shunt- 
ing off the evil "day from themselves so as to allow its calamities 
to accumulate into terrible magnitude and burst with awful force 
upon their successors. But the principal defence of Sir Bartle 
Frere's action and policy is to be found in his despatches, and to 
them we earnestly beg careful and impartial attention. 

The people of the Cape Colony and Natal are composed of 
many races and of many creeds, but with the most insignificant 
exceptions they all declare in the most emphatic manner in favour 
of the policy of Sir Bartle Frere. 

" Saxon and Celt and Dane are we, 
But all of us Danes in our welcome of thee." 

From Capetown to the Tugela river and from L'Agulhas to the 
Orange river one universal shout of sympathy and approval goes 
forth to England. Resolutions, earnestly and emphatically de- 
claring that the High Commissioner is right, are sent to the foot of 
the Queen's throne from Capetown, Port Elizabeth, Grahamstown, 
Graaff-Reinet, Pietermaritzburg, D'Urban, and hosts of smaller 
places. The newspaper press, with very few exceptions, constantly 
and vigorously declares aloud the public sentiments. Surely all 
this is a powerful argument. The people of South Africa, whose 
lives, property, and character are at stake, may be trusted to take 
such a lively interest in the entire subject as to understand it 
thoroughly. Their interests and those of the United Kingdom are 
thoroughly identical in this matter, and the sky does not so change 
the mind even in this portion of the British Empire as to pervert 
entirely the moral nature of so many of her Majesty's loyal 
subjects. 



APPENDIX. 245 

Political events connected with the Zulu war form incomparably 
the most powerful argument that has yet been adduced in favour 
of South African Confederation. We really cannot afford any 
further Glenelg experiments, and so soon as we can knit ourselves 
together in a powerful dominion we are by no means apprehensive 
of the expense of fighting our own battles. In the first place we 
would take care that there would be no chiefs to fight with, and 
that witchcraft, tyranny, and other abominations should finally 
cease. The natives would have to learn the habits of industry and 
peace, and would be induced to substitute spades and ploughs for 
guns and ammunition. A just, firm policy of this character, would 
form a basis for Christianity, peace, and civilization, whereas the 
senseless and fatuous plans of so-called philanthropists are as 
destructive to the natives as they are injurious to the colonists and 
to the British Empire of which they form a part. 

It would be fortunate for South Africa if fair play were as much 
the practice as it is the boast of Englishmen. There are many men 
at home full of the same sentiments of righteous indignation as 
those. which animated Sir George Napier previous to his arrival in 
South Africa. How few are there like that Governor, who will 
consider it their duty to make themselves conversant with the 
subject, and then be guided by their conscientious convictions. 
The cause at issue is simply savagery versus civilization, and before 
a verdict is given the entire evidence and arguments ought to be 
attentively heard and carefully considered. Colonists do not desire 
war, but an end of all war. They are most anxious to save, not 
to destroy, the savages, and the wise statesmanship of such men as 
Sir Benjamin D'Urban, Sir George Grey, and Sir Bartle Frere is 
absolutely ncessary for this purpose. — May 2, 1879. 



IMPORTANT DESPATCH FROM SIR BARTLE FRERE. 

The following despatch from Sir Bartle Frere, dated Pieter- 
maritzburg, February 12, has been issued as a parliamentary 
paper : — 

R 3 



240 APPENDIX. 

"Sir, — In my despatch of January 24tli last, I only partially 
answered your despatch of December 18th. I was, in fact, inter- 
rupted while writing by the intelligence of our disaster at the head- 
quarter camp on the 22nd, and was obliged to close my unfinished 
despatch to be in time for the mail. The very serious check which 
we received on the 22nd does not, however, seem to me to call for 
any modification in the opinions I had already ventured to lay before 
her Majesty's Government ; on the contrary, it seems to confirm 
most strongly the 'arguments I had already advanced in my despatch 
of the 24th, to show that it was impossible, with any regard to the 
safety of these colonies, to defer placing in the hands of the general 
commanding her Majesty's forces the enforcemeat of the demands 
made on Cet3rwayo. Deeply as, in common with every subject of 
her Majesty, I deplore the disastrous check we have received, it is 
impossible to shut one's eyes to the fact that it was, in all human 
probability, mainly clue to disregard of the general's orders that so 
great a disaster occurred ; whilst every circumstance accompanying 
or following the events of that day proves what an insecure position 
we occupied both here and in the Transvaal with such a neighbour 
along so many hundred miles of undefended frontier. As a con- 
sequence of the crippling of Colonel Glyn's and Colonel Durnford's 
columns, and the shock which has been given to the colonial forces, 
Europeans as well as natives, the columns of Colonel Pearson and 
Colonel Wood have been obliged to suspend their advance and 
await reinforcements, w^hich can only be looked for to the extent 
required from more distant parts of South Africa and from England. 
It has become painfully evident that the Zulu king has an army at 
his command, which could almost any day unexpectedly invade 
Natal, and, owing to the great extent of frontier and utter helpless- 
ness of the undisciplined hordes of Natal natives to offer efi"ectual 
resistance, the Zulus might march at will through the country, 
devastating and murdering, without a chance of being checked, so 
long as they abstained from attacking the entrenched posts of her 
Majesty's troops, which are from fifty to a hundred miles apart. 
The capital and all the principal towns are at this moment in 
' laager,' prepared for attack, which, even if successfully resisted, 



APPENDIX. 247 

would leave two-thirds of them in ashes, and the country around 
thoroughly desolated. From every part of South Africa outside the 
colony, where the native races predominate, come the same reports 
of uneasiness and of intended rising of the native race against the 
white man ; whilst the majority of the Transvaal European popula- 
tion is in a state of avowed readiness to take any opportunity of 
shaking off the yoke of the English Government. It may be said 
that these are only the stronger reasons why hostilities should not 
have been commenced with the Zulu king. But I submit that 
■every circumstance which has lately occurred shows how impossible 
it is to defer hostilities for more than a few weeks at the utmost, 
possibly till the harvest now ripening was gathered, and till the 
Tugela was fordable. The feeling which has just burst out, both 
among native tribes and in the Transvaal, was there already, and in 
the Transvaal, at all events, its expression could not have been 
deferred by any postponement of hostilities with the Zulus. But 
what possible chance was there that Cetywayo himself would for 
any length of time have remained quiescent within his own borders ? 
He had not acknowledged officially, and in the usual form, the award 
of the disputed territory in his favour, nor had he condescended even 
to discuss the terms of the High Commissioner's messages to him. 
Had Lord Chelmsford's large force been kept permanently on his 
frontier, he might possibly have refrained from action as long as 
this force remained. But its permanent retention was not, as 
Cetywayo knew, probable, and the removal of the force would 
assuredly have led to a renewal of the encroachments and the 
violations of the territory which he had directed or acquiesced in 
during the preceding year and a half ; the slightest accident might 
have led to a collision taking us at a disadvantage, and what he had 
the power to do in a colony so little prepared for seK-defence may 
be judged from what he has done since her Majesty's troops crossed 
the border. It seems to me vain, I had almost said criminal, to shut 
cur eyes to the fact that there has grown up, by our sufferance, 
alongside this colony, a very powerful miKtary organization, directed 
by an irresponsible, bloodthirsty, and treacherous despot, and that 
as long as this organization exists and is so directed it is impossible 



248 APPENDIX. 

for peaceful subjects of lier Majesty to feel security of life or pro- 
perty within fifty miles of Ms border. Tlie existence of this military 
organization makes that of a peaceful English community in his 
neighbourhood impossible, and unless Cetywayo's power of murder 
and plunder be restrained, this colony can only continue to exist as 
an armed camp. Again, it may be said that before attempting to 
coerce Cetywayo the presence of a large force in the field should 
have been secured. To this I can only answer that though a larger 
force might undoubtedly have lessened the chance of successful 
opposition, there was no reason v/hatever at the time to suppose 
that the force at our disposal was too small for the task attempted. 
I will not dwell on what might have been the case had orders been 
obeyed, and had things happened otherwise than they did happen. 
I stand on the broad fact that I sought information in every possible 
quarter, and had, and have, no reason whatever to suppose that 
there was anything rash in the undertaking. I know of no one 
who is supposed to know the Zulus whose advice had not been as 
fully heard as I could obtain it. Of the three persons who, among 
unofficial as well as official authorities, are supposed best to know 
the Zulus, their feelings and probable intentions, one expressed to 
me his own belief in the ultimate acceptance of the terms offered 
without fighting ; another considered we had, in our military cal- 
culations, greatly over-estimated the Zulu power ; and a third, who 
had perhaps better means of judging than any one else, whilst 
agreeing that the Zulu power had been much overrated, was con- 
vinced that the Zulu people themselves would bring their tyrant to 
reason, and that, after a single action or two, the military system of 
the Zulus would collapse. It is a singular coincidence that the latter 
opinion was expressed to me on the 22nd, at the very time that om* 
camp at Isandala was in possession of the Zulus. Looking back on 
the past in the light of what has happened, I cannot think the work 
was rashly undertaken. But even if I could have hoped that further 
reinforcements could be expected within a reasonable time in answer 
to a call for them, there was no time to wait. No one who had 
carefully studied the events of the last two years, and knew the 
ways of these barbarians, could reasonably have expected the Zulus 



APPENDIX. 249 

to remain quiet, and it was clear that, even if they deferred action, 
there were elements of strife elsewhere which could not be evaded 
or delayed. As I have said before, and in other communications, 
the die for peace or for war had been cast more than two years ago. 
It was a simj)le question whether we should steadily bring our 
differences to an issue on a clear and unmistakable demand for our 
right to live at peace with our neighbours, or whether we should 
await the convenience of the Zulu kinsr, and be taken at disadvan- 
tage when he saw his opportunity. It seems to me that this same 
principle of self-preservation and seK-defence should be steadfastly 
adhered to in all our future proceedings. It may be quite possible 
to patch up a peace with this or that tribe, which shall for the time 
be more or less satisfactory to some of the interests in this or in a 
neighbouring colony. But I submit that her Majesty's Government 
should not permit peace to be made till her Majesty's unquestioned 
supremacy has been established and recognized by all Zulu tribes 
who now acknowledge Cetywayo between this and the Portuguese 
territory around Delagoa Bay. This I firmly believe to be the only 
guarantee for peace, security, good government, and progressive 
civilization throughout her Majesty's possessions and all neighbour- 
ing territories in South Africa ; and without such security I feel 
assured that this colony of Natal can never be a safe residence for 
peace-loving and civilized men of European descent. 

"H. B. E. Feeee, 
Governor and High Commissioner." 



LONUOK : PEIKTED BT ■\VILLIAM CLOWES AKD SOKS, STAIIFOKD STEEET 

AND ClIAKIKG CROSS. 



,V\VV^°3i^=^'^'6. 



,0^^ LONDON, 1873. '^*'Ar^^ 



yA \ U I. J 8 7, 




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(H^axb §mUrex. 



Oscc 



By special appointment 

to Her Majesty the Q,ueen, H.R.H. the 

Prince of "Wales, and Her Imperial 

Majesty the Empress of Austria, 




l'' E N N * 



32 & 33, LONG ACRE, LONDON; HUNTINGDON; AND 
25, LOWER KING STREET, MANCHESTER, 




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, 




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.^^it**^ciLoofta 



Begs to introduce his manufactures to the Nobility and Gentry as being 
unsurpassed in style, finish, strength, and durability, combined with lightness 
and adaptability for the purposes for which they are specially built, whether 
pleasure or business. 

C. S. WiNDOVER, having resided for some years in Australia, America, 
and India, has there gained the experience necessary to enable him to select 
the various materials absolutely requisite to construct carriages suitable for 
the Colonies, and his especial care having been given to the construction of 
such carriages, they will stand the vicissitudes of the climates. This experience 
naturally gives him an advantage over all other English Carriage Builders. 

Carriages are built at prices which, taking quality into consideration, 
cannot be surpassed. 

All orders will have prompt attention, and will be shipped in the shortest 
space of time. The whole constructed on the best principles from 0. S. 
Windovee's immense stock of seasoned materials. 

Carriages shipped in all cases by the lowest possible running freights. 

N.B. — A selection of designs, with Quotations, with a List of Patrons, to 
be seen in The African Mail. 

C. WiNDOVER has been awarded first-class Gold and Silver Medals at the 
foreigQ Exhibitions at Santiago, Philadelphia, London, Vienna, Moscow, and 
Paris, 1878. 

The immense success which has attended these carriages at the various 
Exhibitions in difi"erent parts of the world, and the large number of orders 
taken at the Paris International Exhibition, is a sufficient proof of their 
stability and adaptability to all roads, countries, and climates. 



^^t ^tekrir §ml d §nix%^ ^mt]] %ixia, 

LIMITED, 
10, CLEMENT'S LANE, LOMBARD STREET, 

LONDON, E.G. 



Nominal Capital £4,000,000 

Subscribed Capital 3,400,000 

Paid-up Capital 850,000 

Eeserve Fund 315,000 



Birectors. 



Sir HY. BAEKLY, k.c.b. g.c.m.g, 
ALEXANDER CROLL, £s^. 
Sir WM. HY. DRAKE, k.c.b. 
FREDERICK GREENE, Esq. 



DANIEL MACKENZIE, Esq. 
ROBERT WHITE, Esq. 
EDWARD WYLD, Esq. 



iSaufecrs. 
THE BANK OF ENGLAND. | THE ALLIANCE BANK. 

JAMES GLEGG, Esq. | FREDK. MAYNARD, Esq. 

dtiirf ilHanasfr. 

ROBERT STEWART, Esq. 

assistant iiHanagcr. 

JOHN CHUMLEY, Esq. 

Siecretarg. 

HENRY FROST, Esq. 

Sotnt ffifenn-al ilSlanagers in tlje &aui\) African (Cnlonies. 

GILBERT FARIE, Esq., and HUGH C. ROSS, Esq. 

EnspECtar of JSranc|}e0. 
REES WILLIAMS, Esq. 
Sissistant Inspfrtors. 



JAMES DARGIE, Esq. 
ALEXR. MAIR, Esq. 



W. H. RENNIE, Esq. 
RICHARD SEYMOUR, Esq. 



The Standard Bank of British Africa, Limited, London, 

ISSUES LETTERS OF CREDIT AND DRAFTS on its Branches in 
South Africa ; 

RECEIVES DEPOSITS at favourable Rates of Interest, which are regu- 
lated by the amount and the length of time for which the Deposits 
are made ; at present it allows interest at the rate of £4 per cent, per 
annum for twelve months fixed. 

OPENS CURRENT ACCOUNTS for the convenience of its South 
African constituents ; 

NEGOTIATES AND COLLECTS BILLS payable in any part of the 
South African Colonies ; 

MAKES ADVANCES against produce shipped, on receipt of Bills of 
Lading, Policies of Insurance, and Invoices ; 

UNDERTAKES THE AGENCY of persons connected with the 
Colonies ; and receives for safe custody Colonial Securities, Shares, 
&c., drawing Interest and Dividends on the same as they fall due ; 

UNDERTAKES all other descriptions of South African Banking and 
Monetary business, and affords every facility to persons in their trans- 
actions with South Africa. 
London, May, 1879. 




FARROW & JACKSON, 

18, GT. TOWER STREET, LONDON, 

WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANTS' ENGINEERS. 

Manufacturers of Iron Wine Bins, Beer Engines, Corking, Bottling, and Bottle 

Washing Machines, Bar Fittings for Spirit Stores, Bottle Wax, Bottle Seals 

with Shifting Centres, Taps, Porcelain and Glass Casks, Bottle Baskets, 

Soda Water Machines, Refrigerators, Knife Cleaning Machines, and 

every other Article used in the Liquor Trades. 



PATENT DOTTBLE BIN TO SHOW 
THE SEAL. 



SODA "WATER MACHINE. 




CELLULAR BIN, ■WTTH SEPARATB 
REST FOR EACH BOTTLE. 




REFRIGERATOR. 



RACK CORKEfG 

MACHINE. 



BEER ENGINE. 




PILLAR ENGINE FOR 
COUNTER. 




RACKING AND FORCE PUMPS. 





BOTTLE "WASHING 
MACHINE. 



LETER CORKING 
MACHINE, 




CATALOGUES FREE ON APPLICATION. 

In ordering it is weU to have the Packages filled with Corks, to save Freight. 

S 



<^ 






4^ 



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ROYAL MAIL SERVICE. 



"%>. 



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UNION STEAM SHIP COMPANY (LIMITED) 



ESTABLISHED 1853. 



FLEET. 










Tonnage. 


Horse-power 


TROJAN 


3600 




3400 


PRETORIA 




3199 




3000 


ARAB 




3170 




3000 


NUBIAN 




3091 




1800 


GERMAN 




3028 




2650 


DURBAN 




2874 




2800 


AMERICAN 




2474 




1500 


TEUTON 




2313 




1800 


ANGLIAN 




2274 




1400 


NYANZA 




2128 




1500 


ASIATIC 




2087 




1100 


DANUBE 




2038 




1200 


AFRICAN 




2019 




1400 


ROMAN 




1850 




1200 


NATAL 




734 




523 


UNION 




113 




60 


T 


HE SERVICE. 







The UNION STEAM SHIP COMPANY (Limited) has Three 

Distinct Services : — 

1st. — The Mail Service •witli the Colonies of the Cape of Good Hope and 

Natal. 
2nd — The Direct Port Elizabeth and Natal Service. 
3rd. — The Cape, Natal, and Zanzibar Mail Service. 

GAPE MAIL SERVICE.— The Packets leave Plymouth (under Con- 
tract with the Cape of Good Hope Government) every alternate Friday, 
sailing from Southampton the preceding day. The days for departure 
from Cape Town homeward are every alternate Tuesday. The time 
occupied between Plymouth and Cape Town is about 22 days. 



DIRECT PORT ELIZABETH AJND NATAL STEAMERS 

are despatched from Southampton every fourth Friday (unless circum- 
stances prevent), and from Plymouth the following day. These Steamers 
proceed through to Zanzibar. The time usually occupied to Port Eliza- 
beth is about 24 days, and to Natal about 28 days. 

CAPE AND NATAL SERVICE.— A large and powerful Inter- 
colonial Steamer is despatched from Cape Town immediately after the 
arrival of each fortnightly Ocean Steamer. The Intercolonial Steamers 
are despatched from Natal every alternate Tuesday, connecting at Cape 
Town with the Company's homeward-bound Mail Steamers. It is antici- 
pated the passage between England and Natal, and vice versa, will be 
accomplished under 28 days usually. The passage between Cape Town 
and Natal is expected to occupy about 5 days. 

GAPE, NATAL, AND ZANZIBAR MAIL SERVICE, under 
Contract with Her Majesty's Government. The Steamers in this Service 
leave Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, every Fourth Wednesday, and, 
after calling at all intermediate Ports, connect at Zanzibar with the 
British India Steamers to Aden, Bombay, &c., and thence to Ports in 
India, China, and Australia. The time occupied from Cape Town to 
Zanzibar is about 20 days, and from England to Zanzibar about 44 days. 

Passengers and Goods are conveyed by the Union Steam Ship Company's 
Steamers in the Cape Mail Service to Cape Town, Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth 
(Algoa Bay), Port Alfred (Kowie Kiver), East London and Natal, and by each 
alternate Mail Steamer to Delagoa Bay, Quillimane, Mozambique and 
Zanzibar. Passengers only for Inhambane are also carried by each alternate 
Mail Steamer, and Passengers and Goods for St. Helena at stated intervals. 

The Steamers in the Direct Port Elizabeth and Natal Service convey 
Passengers and Goods for Port Elizabeth and Natal, and call at East London 
to land Passengers only. 

All Steamers out and home call] at Madeira, and the homeward Mail 
Steamers call at St. Helena and Ascension at regular intervals. 

For rates of Freight and Passage Money apply to — 

Messrs. STUMORE, WESTON & Co., 20, Water Street, Liverpool. 

Mr. F. W. ALLAN, 15, Gordon Street, Glasgow. 

Messrs. KELLER, WALLIS & Co., 73, Piccadilly, Manchester. . 

Messrs. CAROLIN & EGAN, 30, Eden Quay, Dublm. 

Messrs. H. J. WARING & Co., The Wharf, Millbay, Plymouth. 

Or at the Company's Offices, 
ORIENTAL PLACE, SOUTHAMPTON, 

AND 

II, LEADENHALL STREET, LONDON. 



SOUTH AF RICAN ROYAL MAIL SERVICE. 

LONDON LINE OF STEAMERS. 

THE COLONIAL MAIL I^Sl LINE OF STEAMSHIPS 

(carrying Her + '^O Majesty^ Mails) 

BETWEEN 

E]SrGhX.A.Nr) AND SOUTH AFI^ICA, 

Sail from London every alternate Tuesday, and from Dartmouth for 

Cape Town every alternate Friday. 
Extra Steamers are despatched from London and Dartmouth every 28 days , 

and oftener if required by the Trade. 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Tons. 
" KINFAUNS CASTLE " .... 3507 

"WAKWICK CASTLE" 2957 

"BALMORAL CASTLE" ...2948 

"DUBLIN CASTLE" 2911 

''DUNROBIN CASTLE".... 2811 

"DUART CASTLE" 1825 

"LAPLAND" 1269 

"ELIZABETH MARTIN" 1246 
"COURLAND" 1241 



Tons. 
" GRANTULLY CASTLE " 3489 

"CONWAY CASTLE" 2966 

"EDINBURGH CASTLE" 2678 

"WALMER CASTLE" 2446 

"TAYMOUTH CASTLE" ... 1827 

"DUNKELD" 1158 

"MELROSE" 840 

•'FLORENCE" 695 

"VENICE" 511 



Mails, Passengers, and Goods conveyed to and from Cape Town, Mossel 
Bay, Port Elizabeth (Algoa Bay). Port Alfred (Kowie Eiver), East London 
and Natal. The Koyal Mail Steamers call at Madeira, and, at stated 
intervals, at St. Helena and Ascension. 

Mauritius. — The Mail packets of the above Line convey Mails and Passen- 
gers for Maueitius once every four weeks. Transhipment is effected at Cape 
Town. Cargo for Mauritius is taken fortnightly by the Mail Steamers from 
London. 

Delagoa Bay. — A similar service, once every four weeks, is conducted by the 
Company between Cape Town and LoureuQO Marquez (Delagoa Bay) for the 
transhipment of mails, passengers, and goods to and from the Steamers of 
the British India Steam Navigation Company for Zanzibar and Aden. 

All goods to be marked with the name of Port of Destination. Passengers 
embark either in London or at Dartmouth. All heavy baggage must be 
shipped in London. Twenty cubic feet allowed to each adult passenger 
freight free ; all in excess will be charged for. 

All letters to be addressed " via Dartmouth." Postage, Q>d. per half-ounce 
to East and South Africa ; and 4cZ. per half-ounce to Mauritius. 

Particulars of rates for South African Telegrams, via Madeira, or by 
through Cable, via Aden and Zanzibar, can be obtained at Postal Telegraph 
Stations, or at the Offices of the Eastern Telegrapli Company (Limited). 

For Dates of Sailing, Freight, Passage, or any further information, apply 
to the Owners:- DONALD CURRIE & Co., 

London — 3 and 4, Fenchurch Street, E.C. ; Manchester — 11, Commercial 
Buildings, Cross Street ; Liverpool — 23 and 25 Castle Street ; and in 
Glasgow or Leith to Messrs. James Currie & Co. 



PAEIS EXHIBITION, 1878.-HIGHEST AWARD POE QEEAT BEITAIN. 

THE ONLY GOLD MEDAL. 



vvvvvv^ v ^ vvvvvvvvvvv v vvvvvvvvvv vv vvvvvv 



^ 




I*A.TENT 



PIANOFORTE MANUFACTURERS, 

235, REGENT STREET, LONDON, W., 



AND 



5 & 6, COMMERCIAL STREET, LEEDS. 

AWAEDED 

THE PEIZE MEDAL OP THE GEEAT EXHIBITION, LONDON, 1851. 

THE GOLD MEDAL OP HONOUE, PAEIS EXHIBITION, 1855. 
THE PEIZE MEDAL OP THE GEEAT EXHIBITION, LONDON, 1862, 

For " Great Excellence of Tone.^' 

THE GOLD MEDAL AND DIPLOMA OP HONOUE, 

South Afeican Inteenational Exhibition, 1877. 

THE ONLY GOLD MEDAL POE GEEAT BEITAIN, PAEIS, 1878, 

For " Pianos of various Models — Good quality and improved Mechanism." 



PRICES FROM 25 TO 200 GUINEAS. 



Iron-framed and other Pianofortes made especially for 

Exportation. 



ILLUSTRATED LISTS FORWARDED ON APPLICATION. 



Manufactory— FITZROY ROAD, PRIMROSE HILL, LONDON, N.W. 



ME. HAROLD STEPHENS, 

Attorney of the High & Circuit Courts, 



NOTARY PUBLIC AND CONVEYANCER, 



PRETORIA, TRAHSVAAL, SOUTH AIRICA. 



Gases Conducted in the Sigh Circuit and Landrosts 

Courts of the Transvaal. 

NOTARIAL DEEDS PREPARED. 

TITLES TO LAND CAREFULLY INSPECTED. 
EEAL PEOPEETY TEANSFEEEED OE MOETaAGED. 

AGENCIES UNDERTAKEN. 



AGENTS BT APPOINTMENT IN THE TRANSVAAL FOR THE 



>\m im ^$%mmu ®<rmpnjj of f ottdon. 



IE. B. T. MIGHTS, 

Attorney of the High Court of Griqualand, 

and of the Transvaal, 

NOTARY PUBLIC & CONVEYANCER. 



Cases conducted in the High and Circuit Courts 
of the Transvaal and Griqualand West ; also in the 
Lower Courts of these Colonies. 

NOTARIAL DEEDS PREPARED. 

Titles to Land carefully Inspected. 

REAL PROPERTY MORTGAGED AND TRANSFERRED. 



AGENT BY APPOINTMENT OF THE 



ADDRESS— 

KIMBERLEY, DIAMOND FIELDS, 

SOUTH AFRICA. 



IRON HOUSES. 



GALYAOTZED COREUGATED IRON, 



PERFORATED ZINC, 



AND ALL GALVANIZED AND ZINC GOODS. 



FRED. BRABY & COMPY., 



WORKS-LONDON, LIVERPOOL, AND GLASGOW. 



EXPORT OFFICE— 120. CANNON ST., LONDON. 



Catalogues and full particulars furnished on application, hut all 
Orders must he sent through responsible merchants. 



F. BEABY & CO., pay special attention to Quality Iron, and 
Colonists desirous of obtaining excellence in this respect will 
find it to their advantage to use the 

"Sun" Brand of Galvanized Corrugated Iron for Eoofing. 
" Ida " Brand Flat Annealed Sheets for Working-up. 




GEORGE CARLEY & CO., 

30, ELY PLACE, 

HOLBORHSr, LONDON, E.G., 



atr| anir €;|r0Mm^te ^aMfsrtewB. 



Keyless Half Quarter and Minute Repeaters, Chronograplis, 
Perpetual Calendars, Independent Seconds, Central Seconds, and 
other complicated Watches always in Stock. 

Special Keyless and all kinds of Adjusted Compensation 
Balance Watches, adapted for changes of climate, in Gold and 
Silver cases. 



Excellence of Workmanship combined with Moderate Prices. 



ESTABLISHED HALF A CENTURY. 



,'*¥ 



HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE, 



SPECIALLY MANUFACTURED FOR THE 




G. BARTHOLOMEW & CO., 

Cabinet Makers and Upholsterers, 
FINSBURY, LONDON, E.G. 



ILLUSTEATED CATALOGUES FKEE. 



Orders may be sent direct or through any London Merchant 



JOHN V^ALKKR 

{late of the Firm of WM. COLLINS, SONS & CO.) 

AND 

COMPANY, 

WHOLESALE AND EXPORT STATIONERS, 

96, Farringdon Street, London, E.G. 



SPECIAL FACILITIES FOR THE CAPE TRADE. 

CATALOGUES IN PREPARATION. 



DEPARTMENTS. 

BIBLE DEPARTMENT, 

ACCOUNT BOOK DEPARTMENT, 

PAPER AND ENVELOPE DEPARTMENT, 

MISCELLANEOUS STATIONERY. 



SAMPLES ON APPLICATION. 



96, FARRINGDON STREET, LONDON, E.G. 



;> 



N. J« POWIGLL & CO., 



WHOLESALE AND EXPORT 



MANUFACTURING STATIONERS 

Offices— 101, WHITECHAPEL, LONDON. 






An Illustrated Price List will he forwarded upon Application, containing 



ACCOUNT BOOKS, 
COPYING BOOKS, 
MEMORANDUM BOOKS, 
METALLIC BOOKS, 



POCKET BOOKS, 
WALLETS, DIARIES, 
BLOTTING CASES, 
BLOTTING PADS, 



POCKET LEDGERS, 

ENVELOPES, 

NOTE PAPER FOOLSCAP, 

PRINTING PAPERS, &c. 



GENERAL STA.TIONERY. 



'M &^''^^ 



m~. 



« Nff 6 



''M'. 



I0OF1 



'^ 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



MANUFACTUEING STATIONEKS 

191 t& 192, Fleet Street, and 1 c& 2, Chancery Lane, London. 



Carriage Paid to the Country on all Orders over 20s. 

THE PUBLIC SUPPLIED AT WHOLESALE PEICES "WITH 

IQ^OTE I*^5lI>ER AJNT) ENVEX.OFES. 



RELIEF STAMPING REDUCED IN PRICE. NO CHARGE FOR 

PLAIN STAMPING. 



The Vellum Wove Club House Note Paper, combines a perfectly smooth surface 

with perfect freedom from grease. 



Sample Packets of different sizes of Paper and Envelopes sent Post Free 

for Twenty-four stamps. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUES, WITH SAMPLES, SENT POST 

FREE ON APPLICATION. ' 



INKS FOR HOT CLIMATES. 



STEPHENS' 

WRITING FLUIDS & COPYING INK 

Save obtained the Highest Awards every time they have heen 

Exhibited. 

PARIS, HAVRE, AMSTERDAM, LYONS, 

1867, 1876, 1868. 1869. 1872. 

and 1879. VIENNA, PHILADELPHIA, 

1873. 1876. 

They embrace the higher qualities of 

WRITING AND COPYING INKS 

And each possesses some special character adapted to the many different 

requirements of Correspondence and the Counting House. These distinctive 

features, and their general excellence, make them preferable to, and more 

widely useful than the ordinary class of manufactures. 



STEPHENS' BLUE BLACK WRITING FLUID. 
STEPHENS' BLUE BLACK COPYING FLUID. 
STEPHENS' SCARLET INK FOR STEEL PENS. 



The above are particularly adapted for hot climates, extremely fluid, 
but becoming intense and durable colours. 



And every description of Writing and Copying Ink, Quills, Gum Mucilage 
(to resist fermentation in hot climates), and Sealing Wax, 

Manufactured by 

HENRY C. STEPHENS, CHEMIST, 

WHOLESALE AND FOB EXPORT, AT 

171, ALDERSGATE STREET, LONDON, E.G. 



Sold by all Booksellers and Stationers. 



WHOLESOME HOUSES. 




BANNER'S SYSTEM 

OP 

HOUSE DRAINAGE 



AND 



SANITATION. 

BANNER'S PATENT 
VENTILATING COWL. 

No House having a Water Closet in 
it should he without one fixed on the 
Soil Pipe carried ahove the Boo/, and 
for the Ventilation of Fuhlic Buildings 
and Booms they surpass any Ventilator 
yet introduced. 



OPINIONS OF THE PEESS, Etc. 




" Ventilate ! Ventilate ! Ventilate ! "—Public Health. 

" The word ' impossible ' has ceased to exist in the voca- 
bulary of the sanitary reformer ; if a prevalent evil ought to 
be removed, it can be removed."— Times. 

" The system devised by Mr. Banner is as near perfection 
as may be : nothing better need be desired. By means of 
this simple apparatus the foul air in any shaft will be con- 
tinuously extracted." — Sanitaky Recokd. 

" We believe Mr. Banner's system of sanitation will make 
any house absolutely safe from sewer gas or noxious odours 
of any description from the drains or closets." — Architect. 

"One lesson which Mr. Banner has learned, namely, 
that to make a ventilating-pipe of constant avail air must be 
introduced at the bottom, is of itself a boon of value." — The 

BUILDEB. 

" A thorough current of air is constantly maintained by an 
inlet placed just above the trap, and an outlet above the 
roof, to which is annexed the cowl, preventing any down- 
draught A velocity of 510 feet per minute was I'egistered by 
an anemometer under very ordinary circumstances." — 
Building News. 

"The conclusion I have come to after a considerable 
time spent upon their study is, that Banner's Sanitary 
Appliances are the best media extant for the work which 
they are intended to compass, that I can confidently recom- 
mend them, and that they ought to be specified by architects 
generally." — Wm. Eassie, C.E., author of " Sanitary Arrange- 
ments for Dwellings." 



Mr. Banner's system thoroughly effects what it proposes— 
namely to render houses wholesome which are now mere 
deadly fever-traps, whether they be mansions in Belgravia or 
cottages m the suburbs."— John P. Seddon, F.R.I.B.A. 

"Mr. Banner's system fulfils all the conditions specified in 
the contract There is no foul air generated. The several 
currents m the soil-pipe, in the drain, and in the large 
sewers-a channel of 350 feet in length-have uniformly been 
louud to be flowing in the right direction whenever they 
have been tested ; and this has been done repeatedly."— 
Guy's Hospital Gazette. i«=aicui/. 

" I believe in your cowls, and I think that probably I am 
as impartial a judge as can be had, yet I candidly confess that 
if I knew of a better cowl I would most certainly employ it " 
— H. H. Collins, F.R.I.B.A. f i ■ 

"Your system at the Royal Infirmary, Ryde, continues to 
act perfectly, and I am applying it everywhere."— THOS. 
Hellyer, F.R.I.B.A. 

"The system introduced by Mr. Banner has now undergone 
a crucial test, and can only be looked upon as a great fait 

accompli." — METROPOLITAN. 

" I must say, in justice to Mr. Banner, that the greatest 
possible credit is due to him for having succeeded in solving 
a problem which has hitherto baffled all the combined talent 
of the best sanitary authorities of the day."— Major H C 
Seddon, R.E., War Office. ' " 



The system is substantially recommended by the Tjocal Government Board, and should be universally 
adopted. Amongst a number of important places far too numerous to mention, the system has been 
applied, wholly or partially, at Marlborough House, Stafford House, Burghley, Crom Castle, Kylemore 
Castle ; Guy's, Eyde, West Herts, Middlesex, and other Hospitals ; Bank of England, City Bank, 
Standard Bank of Africa, and other Banks ; at Radcliffe College, Oxford ; Presbyterian College, Blooms- 
bury ; New City Liberal, Naval and Military, Thatched House, and other Clubs ; and at the Council 
Chamber, Guildhall. 

FOR PARTICULARS, ADDRESS E. G. BANNER, C.E 

No. II, BILLITER SQUARE, LONDON, E.G. 



THE GOLD REGIONS OF 

SOUTH EASTERN AFRICA, 

BY THE LATE 

THOMAS BAINES, ESQ., F.E.G.S., 

(^Dedicated ty Special Permission to H.R.H. Prince Alfred.") 

ACCOMPANIED BY BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR, 
WITH MAGNIFICENT MAP 

Of the Country, between the Vaal and Zambesi Rivers — ^With the Route marked out by this 
celebrated Traveller — Comprising the seat of War in the Transvaal and the Gold Regions of 
South Eastern Africa, to which is annexed a Map of the Cape Colonies. 



PHOTOGRAPHS AND VIGNETTE ILLUSTRATIONS 

Accompany the Book, which supplies a truthful and excellent description of one of the most 
interesting and least known portions of South Eastern Africa. 
The few remaining Copies may be had at the reduced price of 7s. 6d. each, of A. White & Co., 
Smith African Mail Office, 17, Blomfield Street, London ; and of J. W. C. Mackay & Co., Book- 
sellers, Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

The " SontL. African Mail," publislied expressly for South. 
Africa, has the largest circulation of any Newspaper sent to 
that country, and embraces the Latest News and Special Tele- 
grams to the time of the departure of the Mail. It is despatched 
twice a month by Mail Steamers, and is sent forward to the 
various towns in the Cajpe Colony^ Natal, Diamond Fields, Free 
State, Transvaal, and Delagoa Bay. 

Subscription 10s. Qd. per annum, payable in advance. 
For COLONIAL AGENTS see "South African Mail." 

PUBLISHEES— A. WHITE & Co. 

"SOUTH AFEICAN MAIL" OFFICE, 17, BLOMFIELD 

STKEET, LONDON WALL, LONDON, E.G. 



A. "W^HITE <fe CO., 

WHOLESALE AND EXPORT STATIONERS, 

STEAM PRINTERS & LITHOGRAPHERS. 
SHIPPINa ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. 



Printers of the " South African Mail." 



LEATH AND ROSS, HOMEOPATHIC CHEMISTS, LONDON. 



No. 6a. is a 
very handsome 
mahogany case, 
adapted to, and 
containing the 
New Edition of, 
Laurie'sDomestic 
Medicine, edited 
byDr.trutteridge, 
and contains all 
the medicines that 
work prescribes 
in the lid-drop- 
ping tube and 
drop conductors. 
Scissors and 

Tweezers, Arnica 
and Calendula 
Plaster, at the top 
of the case, the 
work handsomely 
bound in calf, 
ninety-four chief 
remedies in 2- 
dram bottles; in 
the drawer, a tray 
containing the 
eighty remedies 
in the Appendix 
which includes 
the New Ameri- 
can remedies, and 
all the latest ad- 
ditions to the 
Pharmacopoeia. 
Underneath the 
iray are placed 
medicine spoons, 
oil silk, lint, &c., 
and at the back 
of the drawer. 




large bottles of 
the external tinc- 
tures, making 
altogether a most 
handsome case, 
and well suited 
for Missionaries, 
owners of large 
estates or planta- 
tions, where num- 
bers of hands are 
employed. Price, 
complete, £9, and 
sent carriage paid 
within the United 
Kingdom on re- 
ceipt of a remit- 
tance for that 
amount. 

No. 13 is a M(v- 
rocco .Globule case 
It contains all the 
external and in- 
ternal remedies 
prescribed in 
Laurie's Domestic 
Medicine, new 
edition. In a 
drawer lined 8ilk 
velvet are all the 
externaltinctures, 
in a sliding tray 
above the drawer 
the ninety - six 
remedies in the 
Appendix, which 
embrace all the 
latest additions to 
the Pharmaco- 
poeia, including 



.he new American ;eme«e.; above „em.ety^^^^ 

SSri^e IS^-e1ur'l\At 'S,:tS,^M^^^^^^^^ 11^' - e..a, to one arop of 

tincture. Price complete, and sent carriage paid on receipt of a remittance, lor ±b bs. 



LONDON : 

LEATH &EOSS, 

Homoeopatliio 

Chemists, 

No. 5, St. PAUL'S 
CHURCHYARD, 

AKD 9, 

VERE STREET, 
OXFORD STREET. 



Shippers 
and the Trade sup- 
plied. 




Intending Pur- 
chasers will 
please quote the 

Number 
in ordering either 
of these Cases. 



Full descriptive 

Catalogue 

sent free to any 

part 

of the World. 



G^JdiCHOUi^ 



^ 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 



3 9088 00612 6353